The Objective Standard: Winter 2009-2010, Vol. 4, No. 4

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This study investigates the intraseasonal variations of the Northern Hemispheric storm track associated with the Madden—Julian oscillation MJO during the extended boreal winter November—April using 36 yr — of reanalysis data from ERA-Interim. Two methods have been used to diagnose storm-track variations. In the first method, the storm track is quantified by the temporal-filtered variance of hPa meridional wind vv or mean sea level pressure pp.

The intraseasonal anomalies of vv composited for eight MJO phases are characterized by a zonal band of strong positive or negative anomalies meandering from the Pacific all the way across North America and the Atlantic into northern Europe, with weaker anomalies of opposite sign at one or both flanks. The results based on pp are consistent with those based on vv except for larger zonal variations, which may be induced by surface topography.

In the second method, an objective cyclone-tracking scheme has been used to track the extratropical cyclones that compose the storm track. Further analysis demonstrates that major contribution comes from variations in the cyclone frequency. Further analysis suggests that the intraseasonal variations of the storm track can be primarily attributed to the variations of the mean flow that responds to the anomalous MJO convections in the tropics, with possible contribution also from the moisture variations. Denotes content that is immediately available upon publication as open access.

For information regarding reuse of this content and general copyright information, consult the AMS Copyright Policy www. Storm tracks are midlatitude regions that are characterized by frequent passage of extratropical cyclones—storms. These storms are also referred to as baroclinic waves, transient eddies, or synoptic-scale disturbances in the literature, which we will also use in this study under proper context. In the climate community, the activity of these storms is also called the storm track.

Storm tracks play critical roles in both weather and climate. Extratropical cyclones are responsible for most of the severe and hazardous weather in the midlatitudes. They also transport a large amount of heat, momentum, and moisture and thus are important in maintaining the general circulation. There are two basic methods to quantify the storm track.

The first one identifies the extratropical cyclones, tracks their positions with time, and produces statistics for their distributions e. Blackmon found that the geographical locations of bandpass-filtered 2—6 days eddy variance of hPa geopotential height correspond closely to the regions with frequent occurrence of extratropical cyclones and thus used the term storm tracks to describe the maxima of these eddy statistics.

It should be noted that eddy statistics do not differentiate between cyclones and anticyclones and thus include contributions from both. However, anticyclones high pressure systems are usually slow-moving and have pressure anomalies much weaker compared to cyclones e. Climatological distribution also indicates that they are located farther equatorward, suggesting that they mainly reflect the variations of the subtropical high Hoskins and Hodges Therefore, the eddy statistics are likely dominated by the contributions from the cyclones, and we will not discuss the anticyclones in this study.

There are both advantages and disadvantages in using the cyclone tracking and eddy statistics methods. The cyclone-tracking, or Lagrangian, method is straightforward and easily related to the daily weather. However, the tracked cyclones are sparsely distributed in time and space with large spread in intensity, making it difficult to identify general relationships between cyclones and the large-scale meteorological conditions. On the other hand, Eulerian eddy statistics such as the eddy momentum, heat, and moisture fluxes are important terms in the governing equations for momentum, heat, or moisture.

Thus, it is convenient to diagnose the interaction between eddies and mean state by examining these quantities. However, eddy statistics do not provide specific information regarding the cyclones, such as the intensity or frequency of occurrence. Therefore, it is necessary to examine results based on both methods such that complementary information can be obtained. Because of the importance of storm track in both weather and climate, it is important to investigate the characteristics of the storm tracks, especially their variability, which often causes significant regional weather and climate variations.

In this study, we will examine the intraseasonal variability of storm track associated with the Madden—Julian oscillation MJO. Owing to the strong heating anomalies involved, the MJO can produce strong response not only in the tropics but also in the extratropics. The extratropical response to tropical diabatic heating anomalies has long been noticed as the teleconnection patterns Horel and Wallace ; Wallace and Gutzler and interpreted in terms of Rossby wave dispersion by Hoskins and Karoly Since then a number of studies have investigated the extratropical response to the tropical convection anomalies on the intraseasonal time scale, mostly focusing on the Northern Hemisphere NH large-scale circulation Liebmann and Hartmann ; Weickmann et al.

Previous studies on the extratropical response to the MJO have mostly focused on large-scale circulation anomalies. It is only very recently that a number of studies started to examine the MJO influence on the midlatitude storm tracks and extratropical cyclones Deng and Jiang , hereafter DJ11 ; Lee and Lim , hereafter LL12 ; Grise et al. Prior to these studies, Matthews and Kiladis analyzed the interaction between the midlatitude high-frequency transients and the MJO.

DJ11 performed a multivariate empirical orthogonal function MEOF analysis of the intraseasonal filtered tropical outgoing longwave radiation OLR and the North Pacific storm track quantified by vertically averaged synoptic eddy kinetic energy SEKE and derived the coupling pattern between the MJO convection and the Pacific storm track by compositing strong coupling events identified by the principal components PCs of the MEOF. They found that the North Pacific winter storm-track response is characterized by an amplitude-varying dipole propagating northeastward as the center of the anomalous tropical convection moves eastward across the eastern Indian Ocean and the western-central Pacific.

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LL12 used the envelope of the 2. These three studies are all based on the Eulerian eddy statistics method. In this study, we will investigate the influence of the MJO on the storm track using both Lagrangian cyclone-tracking and Eulerian eddy statistics methods, and results will be compared in the same context.

While they detected some signals of storm-track activity associated with the MJO, it is difficult to directly compare their results with those based on Eulerian statistics in previous studies such as DJ11 and LL12 because of the differences regarding the region focused on, the variables analyzed, and the compositing method. The examination of the results based on the cyclone-tracking methods as well as the comparison to those based on eddy statistics will provide more insights that have not been obtained regarding the storm-track variations associated with the MJO.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the data and methodology used in this paper. Sections 3 and 4 then present the intraseasonal variations of the storm track and extratropical cyclone activity associated with the MJO from eddy statistics and cyclone-tracking perspectives, respectively. In section 5 , we will examine two physical factors through which the MJO may modulate the storm track. Finally, the conclusions and discussion are presented in section 6. Atmospheric variables including meridional and zonal winds, specific humidity, MSLP, geopotential height at several significant pressure levels, and the total column water vapor TCWV are used.

All variables were first interpolated onto the same horizontal resolution of 2. Daily averaged values are used except for conducting the automated cyclone tracking. In the cyclone-tracking procedure, 6-hourly data are used since high-temporal-resolution data are required for forming reasonably continuous tracks. The time period examined is 36 yr from January to December They were interpolated onto the same temporal and horizontal resolutions as the reanalysis. The temporal coverage of the precipitation data is from January to December This study focuses on the Northern Hemisphere and the extended boreal winter season November to April for the following two reasons: 1 the storm track is much stronger in winter than that in summer owing to stronger meridional temperature gradient, and 2 boreal winter is also the season when tropical convection is located in the near-equatorial region and the intraseasonal variability exhibits coherent eastward propagation.

In boreal summer, the strongest tropical convection shifts northward and the intraseasonal variability often displays northward propagation in addition to the eastward propagation owing to its interaction with the Asian summer monsoon e. The cyclone-tracking method dates back to the late nineteenth century when the cyclone tracks were manually identified on the daily synoptic charts e.

Because of the substantial effort required for the manual tracking, this method had not been extensively used until recently when automatic objective algorithms were developed e. In this study, we will employ the objective tracking tool developed by Hodges , , We follow the tracking procedures described by Hodges and Hoskins and Hodges In this study, the meteorological variable used is MSLP, in which surface cyclones will be tracked.

Other variables, such as hPa relative vorticity, hPa geopotential height, hPa potential vorticity, have also been used in different studies. Each of these variables has its own advantages and disadvantages, but examination of a great variety of variables reveals generally similar patterns Hoskins and Hodges We will present results based on MSLP only in this study.

Details of the tracking procedure are discussed below. First, a spatial filtering by which only waves with total wavenumber equal to or greater than 5 are retained is applied to the 6-hourly MSLP data to remove the large-scale, low-frequency background flow Hoskins and Hodges Local negative MSLP minima are then identified as the cyclone centers at each time step. Finally, these pressure minima are linked together across time steps to form cyclone tracks.

The sets of optimized tracks are obtained by minimizing a cost function with constraints concerning the track smoothness and the maximum displacement of cyclones among consecutive time steps. Further details of the method are found in Hodges The outputs from the tracking algorithm include the longitude and latitude of the cyclone center, as well as the center intensity the absolute value of the pressure anomaly for each track at each time step. Note that cyclone intensity here refers to the pressure anomaly from a large-scale background flow, instead of the absolute minimum pressure at the cyclone center.

Many recent studies e. Following Hoskins and Hodges , we only use tracks with a minimum lifetime of 2 days and a minimum track length of km. From these tracks, a daily, 2. This is equivalent to assume that a cyclone has a radius of influence of km, which has been widely used in previous studies e.

The center intensity is recorded. Since the tracking output is four times per day, there are cases when more than one cyclone is present in a grid box within one day. In such cases, the averaged intensity is used. It should be noted that here we assume the radius of influence of a cyclone is constant no matter which stage it is in and how strong it is, which is apparently not accurate enough. More sophisticate ways such as adding intensity-related weighting to the radius of influence or determining the radius by the closed isobar contour of a certain value could be applied but are beyond the scope of this study.

Nevertheless, we performed sensitivity tests by changing the radius of influence to be or km, and results showed that our conclusions are not sensitive to the choice of the value of the radius of influence within this range. The second approach to diagnose the storm track is to use the bandpass-filtered eddy variance—covariance. Since Blackmon first introduced the bandpass-filtered variance of hPa geopotential height, many other eddy variance—covariance quantities have also been used to indicate storm tracks.

In this study, we use the h-difference-filtered variance introduced by Wallace et al. The h difference filtering has half power points at periods of 1. Note that the averaging time period does not have to be continuous. The evolution of the MJO is described as an eight-phase cycle by combining both the sign and magnitude of the RMM1 and RMM2 indices and is characterized by the eastward propagation of tropical convection as well as coherent circulation changes from the Indian Ocean to the Western Hemisphere and Africa.

In this section, the variations of storm track associated with the MJO will be examined by compositing the storm-track anomalies with respect to different MJO phases. Results based on the eddy variance method will be first shown. Eddy variance of meridional wind is probably the most widely used measure of storm track since it represents the dominant part of the eddy kinetic energy, so much of our results will be based on this quantity.

In addition, eddy variance of MSLP is also examined in order to provide direct comparison to the results based on the cyclone-tracking method, in which the MSLP field is used. Before examining the MJO-related anomalies, we will first examine the winter climatology of the NH storm track. While this has been discussed in previous studies, this provides important information that will be useful when we examine the MJO composites later. The winter climatology of the NH storm track averaged over yr — boreal winter seasons November—April is shown in Fig. The three-dimensional structure of the NH storm tracks can be perceived by combining information from both the longitude—latitude plane at hPa Fig.

From Fig. This is dynamically consistent since the main energy source of the baroclinic waves forming the storm track lies in the conversion of the mean available potential energy from the mean flow. The storm track based on mean sea level pressure pp; i. However, a few differences between Figs. First, the storm track based on pp is less zonally continuous from the Pacific to northern Europe, with an apparent break over the Rockies, while a secondary maximum over central North America is probably due to lee cyclones to the east of the Rockies.

Second, the maxima of the Pacific and Atlantic storm tracks are both shifted toward the western part of the oceans; the Pacific storm track shows noticeable southwest—northeast tilt that is not evident in vv, while the southwest—northeast tilt in the Atlantic storm track becomes more pronounced compared to that in vv These are probably due to the influence of the western boundary ocean currents WBCs , such as the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension e. Booth et al. The topographic influences seem to be more visible in the surface pressure than in the upper-level wind field. Furthermore, the entire NH storm tracks are a few degrees farther north in pp than those in vv, which is probably due to the impact of the Coriolis parameter.

As shown later, these differences are also inherited by the MJO composites. Nevertheless, the main characteristics of the NH storm tracks in boreal winter are highly consistent based on either the surface pressure or upper-level wind. The MJO composites of vv during — boreal winters are displayed in Fig. The procedure to form the composite is as follows. First, the h-differenced anomaly of meridional wind is calculated for each calendar day at each grid point and squared.

Then the climatological mean — of the squared anomaly is removed for each calendar day. Then, a 20—day bandpass filter is applied to the time series of the squared anomalies to isolate the intraseasonal variability. The number of total MJO days used for the composite for each phase is indicated at the upper-left corner of each panel. In Fig. The same is true for Figs.

Note that the degrees of freedom are smaller than the number of strong MJO days used for the MJO composite owing to possible autocorrelation in the time series of vv or pp anomalies Leith The reduction of the degrees of freedom has been considered throughout this paper when performing the significance test. As in Fig. Specifically, during MJO phase 1, weak positive anomalies extend eastward from Eurasia across the Pacific. These positive anomalies can be seen propagating eastward and strengthening, becoming strongest by phase 3.

At that time a band of strong positive anomaly extends across the entire midlatitude Pacific, with weaker anomalies extending across the southern part of the United States into the Atlantic, with the signal reaching Europe by phases 4 and 5. Subsequently, these positive anomalies continue to shift eastward and weaken, nearly disappearing by phase 8. Meanwhile, half a cycle later, similar but opposite-signed anomalies start developing over Eurasia and western Pacific during phase 5, moving eastward and strengthening, until strong negative anomalies extend all the way from the Pacific across the southern United States and North Atlantic into northern Europe by phase 8.

To the south of these main anomalies, we can also see anomalies of the opposite sign developing over the eastern Pacific. Throughout the MJO cycle, the storm-track anomalies move eastward and slightly northward along with the eastward propagation of the MJO convection anomalies. During MJO phases 1—4 when enhanced MJO convection propagates from the Indian Ocean to the Maritime Continent, the Pacific storm track is mainly intensified and becomes narrower, while the Atlantic storm track mainly shows equatorward displacement. Figure 3 further shows the storm-track anomalies associated with MJO based on pp.

The anomalous patterns are largely consistent with those based on vv Fig. First of all, the storm-track anomalies are not as zonally continuous as those in Fig. Stronger anomalies are found in the western oceans, especially over the Kuroshio Extension area, than those in the eastern oceans; very little variation is present over the Rocky Mountains, but anomalies are pronounced downstream of the Rockies.

Also, the anomalies in the western Pacific exhibit strong southwest-to-northeast tilt, which is not found in Fig. Seismic strengthening of an existing steel reinforced concrete city office building in Shizuoka, Japan. Sugano, S. Proceeding of 7th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Tagawa, Y. Experimental study of new seismic strengthening method for existing RC structure. Tasnimi, A. Iran in Persian. William, M. Seismic behavior of knee braced frames. Wylli, L. Seismic upgrade preserves architecture.

Modern Steel Construction Nitish Agarwal. The field has diverse application areas, and a large number of fields amalgamate to ensure different requirement in different circumstances is being met by watermarking. We will be focusing in this paper mainly on the techniques which come under authenticating an image as to see if the image which is being used as a proof is not tampered in any way.

This comes as the subset named as fragile watermarking in the field of watermarking techniques. We propose a novel method which focuses mainly on JPEG format of images and takes the lossy compression into consideration. The method works for both grayscale as well as the color images. Celik, Gaurav Sharma, E. Saber, and A. Hierarchical watermarking for secure image authentication with localization. Chandramouli, N. Memon, and M. Digital watermarking. Encyclopedia of Imaging Science and Technology, Chen and G. Quantization index modulation methods: A class of provably good methods for digital watermarking and information embedding, May Coppersmith, F.

Mintzer, C. Tresser, Chai Wah Wu, and M. Fragile imperceptible digital watermark withprivacy control. Cox, J. Killian, F. Leighton, and T. Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia, December Minitzer, G.


Braudaway, and A. Opportunities for watermarking standards. Communications of ACM, July Fridrich, M. Goljan, and Arnold C. New fragile authentication watermark for images. Goljan, and N. Further attacks on yeung-mintzer watermarking scheme. The trustworthy digital camera: Restoring credibility to the photographic image. Holliman and N. Counterfeiting attacks on oblivious block-wise independent invisible watermarking scheme.

Image Processing, pages —, March Hwang, J. Kim, and J. A reversible watermarking based on histogram shifting. Invertible authentication watermark for jpeg images. Exploring steganography: Seeing the unseen. IEEE Computer, pages 26—34, Lu, R. Shen, and Fu-Lai Chung. Fragile watermarking scheme for image authentication. Electronics Letters, June Paar and et al. Understanding Cryptography. Springer, Christine I. Podilchuk and Edward J. Digital watermarking: Algorithms and applications. A public key watermarking for image verification and authentication.

Wu, B. Zhu, S. Li, and F. Efficient oracle attacks on yeung-mintzer and variant authentication schemes. Of International Conf. Taiwan, pages —, Wu and B. Watermarking for image authentication. IEEE Proc. Minerva M. Yeung and F. An invisible watermarking technique for image verification. IEEE Int. Image Processing, October Rashi Bais, K. The proposed approach reduces the cost associated with lost keys, addresses non-repudiation issues and provides increased security of digital content. This approach has reduced the complicated sequence of the operation to generate crypto keys as in the traditional cryptography system.

The key is derived directly from the biometric data and is not stored in the database, since it creates more complexity to crack or guess the cryptographic keys. We evaluated our technique using 50 different fingerprint samples, and found that an error-free key can be reproduced reliably with a This approach is implemented in MATLAB and can generate variable size cryptographic key, with minimum amount of time complexity, which is aptly suited for any real time cryptography.

Arul, Dr. Lalithamani, K. Jain, A. Goh, D. Sowjanya Sunkara, T. Ravi Sekhar. The general idea behind techniques that improve on-chip bus speed is to remove undesirable patterns that are associated with certain classes of crosstalk. We analyze the properties of the FPF-CAC and show that mathematically, a mapping scheme exists between the data words and code words. We also investigate the implementation details of the CODECs, including design complexity and the speed.

C, Cordero. V and Khatri. Sridhara, A. Ahmed, and N. Duan, A. Tirumala and S. Bret Victor and K. Gao and C. Hirose and H. Tseng, L. Scheffer, and C. Vittal and M. Xue, E. Kuh, and D. Zhou and D. Victor and K. Kim, K. Baek, N. Shanbhag, C. Liu, and S. Kang, Coupling driven signal encoding scheme for low-power interface design, Proc. Kaul, D. Sylvester and D. Li, A. Pua, P. Srivastava, and U.

Kahng, S. Muddu, E. Sarto, and R. Apostolico and A. The implementation of WATM poses several problems like mobility management, radio access to network etc. This paper presents the literature survey of GSM and its handoff related issues. Handoff is basically related with GSM so that we can understand the required bandwidth and data rate. These parameters are compared with traditional and advance data rate bandwidth.

The paper reviews ATM fundamentals and its benefits. It deals with GSM features, requirements, protocol architectures and the global activities AS per the requirement of higher access network user needs high speed that will surly increase with GSM network. The handoff management operation, requirements, protocols, proposed solutions and open issues for research.

Hand-Off, Data Rate References: 1. Handel, M. Huber, S. Schroder: ATM Networks- concepts, protocols and applications 7e. Pear- son Education Ltd; India 2. Raychaudhuri, N. Nadeem, R. Wireless and ATM Networks. Ayanoglu, K. Eng, M. Helsinki University of Technology.

June Ohio state. Bhat and K. Dellaverson: Reaching the New Frontier. Chrysostomou1, A. Pitsillides, F. Symposium of 3G Infrastructure and Services. Campbell, K. IEEE Networks. Proceedings of the IEEE. Kaloxylos, G. Dravopoulos, H. Alexiou, S. Hadjiefthymiades, L. Alex Kaloxylos, S. Zinjad, S. This has resulted in the installation of millions of data centers in business around the globe.

Historically, the cost to power and cool these facilities was small relative to the investment in servers, storage units and other equipments. Today, however, the annual power and cooling costs of typical data centers are almost equal to the cost of hardware. In the past decade, India has witnessed an exponential increase in the demand for digital storage, from 1 petabyte in to more than 34 petabytes by Datacenter growth is basically driven by increasing requirements from the sectors such as financial institutions, telecom operators, manufacturing and services.

While large financial institutions and telecom companies are likely to build captive Datacenters for hosting their growing data storage needs. Datacenter service providers are expected to invest significantly to multiply their capacities, so as to fulfill the demand arising from small and midsize users. Datacenter is highly energy intensive. With the increasing energy cost, the increase in operational cost is inevitable. Therefore it becomes necessary to reduce the energy consumption to offset the increasing operational cost and to maintain competitiveness.

Existing Datacenters need to adopt the best practices in design, operation and maintenance to achieve operational excellence. The increasing IT business process outsource from foreign countries has resulted in phenomenal growth of Datacenters in India. The total datacenter capacity in India is growing at a rapid pace and is expected to exceed 5. The primary scope of this paper is to provide a framework in which data centers, large and small, could analyze and reduce their power consumption. This paper provides a quantitative approach to understanding energy efficiency within a server and within a data center.

A panorama for power minimization and energy efficiency beginning with the basics of dual in line memory modules DIMM selection, configuring processors with reduced power states, options for constantly spinning disks, power management features in operating systems and other internal equipments.

APC journals 5. Deepak Kumar Dakate, Pawan Dubey. Data may contain several form of information that we want to secure from any unauthorized access. It can be all the more important as technology continues to control various operations in our day to day life Reprogrammable devices are highly attractive options for hardware implementations of encryption algorithms as they provide cryptographic algorithm agility, physical security, and potentially much higher performance, therefore this paper investigates a hardware design to efficiently implement a special type block ciphers in VHDL and its comparative analysis in different parameter variation.

This hardware design is applied to the new secret and variable size key block cipher called Blowfish designed to meet the requirements of the previous known standard and to increase security and to improve performance. The proposed algorithm will be used a variable key size. Thaduri, S. Afaf M. Krishnamurthy G. Ramaswamy , Leela G. H and Ashalatha M. Karthigai Kumar, K. Veeraiah Kumbha, N. Sumathi, K. Siva Naga Raju. Utility distribution networks, sensitive industrial loads and critical commercial operations suffer from various types of outages and service interruptions which can cost significant financial losses.

With the restructuring of power systems and with shifting trend towards distributed and dispersed generation, the issue of power quality is going to take newer dimension. Injection of the wind power into an electric grid affects the power quality. The performance of the wind turbine and thereby power quality are determined on the basis of measurements and the norms followed according to the guideline specified in International Electro-technical Commission standard, IEC The paper study demonstrates the power quality problem due to installation of wind turbine with the grid.

Finally the proposed scheme is applied for both balanced and unbalanced linear non- linear loads. Yalienkaya, M. J Bollen, P. Haque, M. Anaya-Lara O, Acha E. Bollen, M. Madrigal, E. Meinski, R. Pawelek and I. Nastran , R. Cajhen, M. Seliger, and P. Moran, J. Dixon , and R. On Industrial Electronics. Volume 42, PP, August Moran ,P. DZiogas, and G. Volume 25, No. Drishya, I. Nancy Jeba Jingle. The problem is not trivial because the data to be analyzed are mostly noisy and differentperiodicity types namely symbol, sequence, and segment are to be investigated.

Noise is the duplication of data from differentdatabases when they are used for same purpose in different places. So it should be removed. Time series is a collection of data values gathered generally at uniform interval of time to reflect certain behavior of an entity. Real life has several examples of time series such as weather conditions of a particular location, transactions in a superstore, network delays, power consumption, earthquake prediction.

A time series is mostly characterized by being composed of repeating cycles. Identifying repeating periodic patterns could reveal important observations about the behavior and future trends of the case represented by the time series, and hence would lead to more effective decision making. The goal of analyzing a time series is to find whether and how frequent a periodic pattern full or partial is repeated within the series.

There is a need for a comprehensive approach capable of analyzing the whole time series or in a subsection of it to effectively handle different types of noise to a certain degree and at the same time is able to detect different types of periodic patterns; combining these under one umbrella is by itself a challenge.

In this paper, we present an algorithm which can detect symbol, sequence partial , and segment full cycle periodicity in time series. The algorithm is noise resilient; it has been successfully demonstrated to work with replacement, insertion, deletion, or a mixture of these types of noise. Pearson, H.

Huttunen, and O. Berberidis, W. Aref, M. Atallah, I. Vlahavas, and A. European Conf. Artificial Intelligence, July 3. Han, Y. Yin, and G. Tian, S. Tata, R. Hankins, and J.

Volume-1 Issue-5 | International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology(TM)

Huang and C. Knowledge and Data Eng. Ashish P. Waghmare, S. Feasibility report is prepared during the initial phase or definition phase of the project. Updating and validation of the feasibility report is required for implementation of the project. A feasibility report is prepared to present an in-depth techno economic analysis carried out on the project and contain result of technical as well as economic evaluation of the project so that the owner can take investment decision and the project can be properly planned and implemented.

The viability of any project mainly depend on the technical analysis, financial analysis, economic analysis, ecological analysis. Hence it can be very well understood that feasibility study is the base for the success of a project and the major part of this success lies in proper financial analysis. Financial analysis is useful for every business entity to enhance their performance, competitive strength and access their financial stability and profitability of the firm.

Amrita Chakraborty, Avinash Gaur. Signaling Technique for Free Space Optics. It is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for a band limited periodic signal to be positive for all time is that the frequency coefficients form an autocorrelation sequence. Instead of sending data directly on the subcarriers, the autocorrelation of the complex data sequence is performed before transmission to guarantee non-negativity.

In contrast to previous approaches, auto-correlated optical OFDM is able to use the entire bandwidth for data transmission and does not require reserved subcarriers. Using a sub-optimal design technique with subcarriers, auto-correlated optical OFDM has a better BER than the existing techniques. Grubor, S. Randel, K. Langer and J. Carruthers and J. Areas Commun. SAC, pp. Armstrong and A. Lee, S. Randel, F. Breyer and A. Wu, S Boyd and L. Datta, Ed. Bhogayata, K. Shah, B. Since then large variety of fibres are experimented and being practiced effectively around the world. The prime concern was the improvisation of concrete properties.

With time, the scenario gets diverted towards utilisation of wastes and by products from industry and municipal wastes especially the plastic wastes were in concern. The most stable form of plastic wastes made them non biodegradable and somewhat difficult to recycle. In last ten years, large range of various wastes are added to concrete as dual solution towards mitigation of waste management problems and reducing natural material use as concrete constituent. This paper presents the experimental investigation of feasibility of polyethylene post consumer waste used for food packaging along with fly ash as another by product of thermal power stations.

Different curing conditions were used to note the effect of chemical attack and corresponding change in the compressive strength of the concrete mix. Ankur Bhogayata and Narendra K. Mahdi a, H. Abbas b, A. Luiz A. Sivaraja, S. Kandasamy and A. Prvinkumar and S. Naik, S. Singh, C. Huber, and B. Zainab Z. Ismail, Enas A.

Rajani, P. Sangameswara Raju. The response of the Multi converter unified power quality conditioner, for different types of controllers are studied. The system can be applied to adjacent feeders to compensate for supply-voltage and load current imperfections on the main feeder and full compensation of supply voltage imperfections on the other feeders. In the proposed configuration, all converters are connected back to back on the dc side and share a common dc-link capacitor. In order to regulate the dc-link capacitor voltage, Conventionally, a proportional controller PI is used to maintain the dc-link voltage at the reference value.

The transient response of the PI dc-link voltage controller is slow. The transient response of this controller is very fast when compared to that of the conventional dc-link voltage controller. The detailed simulation studies are carried out to validate the proposed controller.

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Rezaeipour and A. Ravi Kumar and S. Basu, S. Das, and G. Power Syst. Jindal, A. Ghosh, and A. Hoang, K. Momoh, X. Principle objective of Image enhancement is to process an image so that result is more suitable than original image for specific application. Digital image enhancement techniques provide a multitude of choices for improving the visual quality of images.

This paper will provide an overview of underlying concepts, along with algorithms commonly used for image enhancement. Weeks, Fundamental of Electronic Image Processing. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Haralick, and L.

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Jain, R. Kasturi and B. Xing-fang huang; jiang-she zhang. Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Digital Image Processing. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, , chapter 4. The proposed technique is based upon the discrete wavelet transform analysis where the algorithm of wavelet threshold is used to calculate the value of threshold.

The proposed method is more efficient and adaptive because the parameter required for calculating the threshold based on sub band data. Wavelet domain image de-noising by thresholding and Wiener filtering.

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Kazubek, M. Oppenheim J. Poggi M. Misiti, Y. Wavelet Toolbox. The MathWorks, Inc. Grace Chang, Bin Yu and M. Image Processing, vol. Donoho and I. A really friendly guide to wavelets. In the extended range, the day-to-day trajectories are affected by substantially larger uncertainty. Therefore, the evolution of forecast anomalies is represented by probability density functions PDF based on daily values of individual members in a given week. It thus provides a strong indication of the likelihood of an NAO- event.

However, at this range the amplitude of the event is underestimated, and the uncertainties are rather large. The cold anomalies persisted mainly over Scandinavia and eastern Europe. Daily values of the verifying analysis are represented by dots. The change in atmospheric circulation that led to the cold spell was predicted about 2. The temperature anomaly vertical cross section not shown indicates that the SSW was probably not a crucial factor in bringing about the change in circulation although it increased the amplitude of the anomalies.

First, we assessed the skill in predicting NAO and BLO values separately, then we considered the skill in predicting the evolution in the NAO—BLO diagram to better understand the ability to capture transitions between different flow patterns. We use the S2S models to estimate the current range of skill of sub-seasonal predictions. Looking at the forecast range at which the ACC drops below 0. Although this score measures only the accuracy of the forecast trajectories without highlighting the prediction skill in terms of strong versus weak events, it provides an objective skill measure for forecasting transitions between the circulation patterns associated with high-impact weather over Europe.

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The lead times at which the bivariate correlation coefficient drops below 0. ACC values are based on a 5-day running mean applied to the forecasts and verifying analysis data. The ability to predict the onset of a period with severe temperature anomalies weeks ahead is closely linked with the ability to accurately forecast the evolution of anomalies in the large-scale atmospheric circulation.

Therefore, reliable extended-range forecasts of flow patterns such the NAO and blocking can support the prediction of severe cold events over Europe. The NAO—BLO diagram is an effective tool to assess the likelihood of regime transitions associated with the occurrence of severe cold episodes in the exended range.

The success of forecasting, weeks ahead, changes in large-scale flow that lead to cold conditions depends on the type of transition. The predictability of such events is enhanced by tropical—extratropical teleconnections resulting from MJO activity. On the other hand, providing probabilities in the extended range for the occurrence of cold events associated with a transition to blocking presents a bigger challenge. The skill of blocking predictions is not highly sensitive to the existence of an MJO in the initial conditions and, consistent with that, blocking exhibits lower predictability than NAO-.

Understanding these flow-dependent variations in forecast skill, and using the new NAO—BLO diagrams, will help users to exploit periods of enhanced extended-range predictability. Ferranti , L. Magnusson , F. Richardson , How far in advance can we predict changes in large-scale flow leading to severe cold conditions over Europe? QJRMS , , — Gottschalck , J. Wheeler , K.