Shadows in the Field: New Perspectives for Fieldwork in Ethnomusicology

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Ethnomusicology 46 3 : Internet and websites. Inside Indonesia 48 October [accessed 22 June ]. Music Resources. SF CD Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Clarinet Quintet, K. Munich, Germany: Naxos, CD recording. Available from: Naxos Music Library. Haydn, Franz Joseph. Piano Sonata Divertimento No. XVI II. Naxos, CD recording. Available from: Apple iTunes. Copland, Aaron. Appalachian Spring - Ballet Suite. Available from: Classical Scores Library.

Roswo, Eugene, and Howard Dratch prod. Roots of Rhythm. Takayma-Ogawa, J. What is Information Literacy? Video recording. Baird, Julianne. Into The Music. Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 6 October, Radio broadcast. McIntosh, Jonathan. Baril, Mohammed A. Available from: Trove.

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Overington, Caroline. Nation Unites Behind the Right to Differ. The Australian , 27 January, section 1, p. Meryment, E. The Australian , 7 October, p. Available from: Factiva. Suryakusuma, Julia. Riley, D. Industrial Relations in Australian Education. Fan, W. Benson, S. Personal communication. Timothy Taylor discusses the arrival and development of new terminology in the face of globalization.

Turino proposes the use of the term "cosmopolitanism" rather than "globalization" to refer to contact between world musical cultures, since this term suggests a more equitable sharing of music traditions and acknowledges that multiple cultures can productively share influence and ownership of particular musical styles. If the originators of a piece of music are given due credit and recognition, this problem can be avoided.

Feld criticizes the claim to ownership of appropriated music through his examination of Paul Simon 's collaboration with South African musicians during the recording of his Graceland album. Simon paid the South African musicians for their work, but he was given all of the legal rights to the music.

This system rewards the creativity of bringing the musical components of a song together, rather than rewarding the actual creators of the music. As globalization continues, this system allows capitalist cultures to absorb and appropriate other musical cultures while receiving full credit for its musical arrangement. Feld also discusses the subjective nature of appropriation, and how society's evaluation of each case determines the severity of the offense.

When American singer James Brown borrowed African rhythms, and when the African musician Fela Kuti borrowed elements of style from James Brown, their common roots of culture made the connection more acceptable to society. However, when the Talking Heads borrow style from James Brown, the distancing between the artist and the appropriated music is more overt to the public eye, and the instance becomes more controversial from an ethical standpoint. Gibb Schreffler [] also examines globalization and diaspora through the lens of Punjabi pop music.

As he suggests, the function and reception of Punjabi music changed drastically as increasing migration and globalization catalyzed the need for a cohesive Punjabi identity, emerging "as a stopgap during a period that was marked by the combination of large-scale experiences of separation from the homeland with as yet poor communication channels. In contrast, Punjabi music of the s and 50s coincided with a wave of Punjabi nationalism that replaced regionalist ideals of earlier times.

The music began to form a particular genteel identity in the s that was accessible even to Punjabi expatriates. During the s and 80s, Punjabi pop music began to adhere aesthetically to more cosmopolitan tastes, often overshadowing music that reflected a truly authentic Punjabi identity.

Soon after, the geographic and cultural locality of Punjabi pop became a prevalent theme, reflecting a strong relationship to the globalization of widespread preferences. Schreffler explains this shift in the role of Punjabi pop in terms of different worlds of performance: amateur, professional, sacred, art, and mediated.

These worlds are primarily defined by the act and function of the musical act, and each is a type of marked activity that influences how the musical act is perceived and the social norms and restrictions to which it is subject. Another example of globalization in music concerns cases of traditions that are officially recognized by UNESCO , or promoted by national governments, as cases of notable global heritage.

In this way, local traditions are introduced to a global audience as something that is so important as to both represent a nation and be of relevance to all people everywhere. Cognitive psychology, neuroscience, anatomy, and similar fields have endeavored to understand how music relates to an individual's perception, cognition, and behavior. Research topics include pitch perception, representation and expectation, timbre perception, rhythmic processing, event hierarchies and reductions, musical performance and ability, musical universals, musical origins, music development, cross-cultural cognition, evolution, and more.

Each of the gestalt principles illustrates a different element of auditory stimuli that cause them to be perceived as a group, or as one unit of music. Proximity dictates that auditory stimuli that are near to each other are seen as a group. Similarity dictates that when multiple auditory stimuli are present, the similar stimuli are perceived as a group. And continuation dictates that auditory stimuli are more likely to be perceived as a group when they follow a continuous, detectable pattern.

The perception of music has a quickly growing body of literature.

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Structurally, the auditory system is able to distinguish different pitches sound waves of varying frequency via the complementary vibrating of the eardrum. It can also parse incoming sound signals via pattern recognition mechanisms. Research suggests that much more is learned perception, however.

Contrary to popular belief, absolute pitch is learned at a critical age, or for a familiar timbre only. Cornelia Fales has explored the ways that expectations of timbre are learned based on past correlations. She has offered three main characteristics of timbre: timbre constitutes a link to the external world, it functions as perceptualization's primary instrument and it is a musical element that we experience without informational consciousness.

Fales has gone into in-depth exploration of humankind's perceptual relation to timbre, noting that out of all of the musical elements, our perception of timbre is the most divergent from the physical acoustic signal of the sound itself. Growing from this concept, she also discusses the "paradox of timbre", the idea that perceived timbre exists only in the mind of the listener and not in the objective world. In Fales' exploration of timbre, she discusses three broad categories of timbre manipulation in musical performance throughout the world. The first of these, timbral anomaly by extraction, involves the breaking of acoustic elements from the perceptual fusion of timbre of which they were part, leading to a splintering of the perceived acoustic signal demonstrated in overtone singing and didjeridoo music.

The second, timbral anomaly by redistribution, is a redistribution of gestalt components to new groups, creating a "chimeric" sound composed of precepts made up of components from several sources as seen in Ghanaian balafon music or the bell tone in barbershop singing. Finally, timbral juxtaposition consists of juxtaposing sounds that fall on opposing ends of a continuum of timbral structure that extends from harmonically based to formant-structured timbres as demonstrated again in overtone singing or the use of the "minde" ornament in Indian sitar music.

Overall, these three techniques form a scale of progressively more effective control of perceptualization as reliance on the acoustic world increases. Cognitive research has also been applied to ethnomusicological studies of rhythm. Some ethnomusicologists believe that African and Western rhythms are organized differently.

Western rhythms may be based on ratio relationships, while African rhythms may be organized additively. In this view, that means that Western rhythms are hierarchical in nature, while African rhythms are serial. The researchers recruited a highly experienced drummer who produced prototypical rhythmic patterns. One version of the model used a metrical structure; however, the authors found that this structure was not necessary.

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All drumming patterns could be interpreted within an additive structure, supporting the idea of a universal ametrical organization scheme for rhythm. Researchers have also attempted to use psychological and biological principles to understand more complex musical phenomena such as performance behavior or the evolution of music, but have reached few consensuses in these areas. It is generally accepted that errors in performance give insight into perception of a music's structure, but these studies are restricted to Western score-reading tradition thus far.

One of theories, expanded on by Ian Cross, is the idea that music piggy-backed on the ability to produce language and evolved to enable and promote social interaction. Since opinions vary on what precisely can be defined as "music", Cross defines it as "complexly structured, affectively significant, attentionally entraining, and immediately—yet indeterminately—meaningful," noting that all known cultures have some art form that can be defined in this way.

Essentially, Cross proposes that music and language evolved together, serving contrasting functions that have been equally essential to the evolution of humankind. Additionally, Bruno Nettl has proposed that music evolved to increase efficiency of vocal communication over long distances, or enabled communication with the supernatural.

The idea of decolonization is not new to the field of ethnomusicology. As early as , the idea became a central topic of discussion for the Society for Ethnomusicology. The decolonization of ethnomusicology takes multiple paths. These proposed approaches are: i ethnomusicologists addressing their roles as scholars, ii the university system being analyzed and revised, iii the philosophies, and thus practices, as a discipline being changed. One idea posed is that the preference and privilege of the written word more than other forms of media scholarship hinders a great deal of potential contributors from finding a space in the disciplinary sphere.

If ethnomusicologists start to rethink the ways in which they communicate with one another, the sphere of academia could be opened to include more than just the written word, allowing new voices to participate. Another topic of discussion for decolonizing ethnomusicology is the existence of archives as a legacy of colonial ethnomusicology or a model for digital democracy.

The current functions of such public archives within institutions and on the internet has been analyzed by ethnomusicologists. Another ethnomusicologist who has developed major music repatriation projects is Diane Thram, who works with the International Library of African Music. Medical ethnomusicology often focuses specifically on music and its effect on the biological, psychological, social, emotional, and spiritual realms of health.

In this regard, medical ethnomusicologists have found applications of music to combat a broad range of health issues; music has found usage in the treatment of autism, dementia, AIDS and HIV, while also finding use in social and spiritual contexts through the restoration of community and the role of music in prayer and meditation.

Theresa Allison served at a nursing home in —, studying the effects of music on the residents of the home. The Home, as she refers to it in her publications, was rather unusual in that music was of utmost priority: the Home has over 60 hours of music and performing arts activities scheduled weekly, and dozens of residents actively participate in songwriting groups.

Songwriting in the Home has fostered a sense of community among the residents and a means of transcending the institution by bringing in memories and experiences from outside their physical space. Music has been found to be particularly effective in combatting dementia. Brummel-Smith calls for a more interdisciplinary approach to combatting AD, which may include music therapy if it may be suitable for a given AD patient. Van Buren speaks about utilizing music as an agent of social change; in Nairobi, she witnessed individuals and organizing drawing upon music and the arts to promote social change within their respective communities.

Namely, she urged ethnomusicologists to research and engage with the music community in order to facilitate the development of educational and therapy programs to further the fight against AIDS. After dinner, Koen and Bakan took out some drums and started playing music together. Participants play on gamelan gongs, metallophones, and drums, which are chosen for providing rewarding sounds with minimal technique and effort from the participants.

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Koen and Bakan recount that the Music-Play Project has proven successful in providing children with key experiences that are particularly important in development, including forming new friendships among participants and facilitating fresh interactions between children and their parents. Koen believed in music-prayer dynamics , which modeled the dynamic relationship between music, prayer, and healing. Many universities around the world offer ethnomusicology classes and act as centers for ethnomusicological research.

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The linked list includes graduate and undergraduate degree-granting programs. The definition of ethnochoreology stands to have many similarities with the current way of studying of ethnomusicology. Because of its growth alongside ethnomusicology, the beginning of ethnochoreology also had a focus on the comparative side of things, where the focus was on classifying different styles based on the movements used and the geographical location in a way not dissimilar to Lomax.

However, at this time, the sound and dance aspects of the performances studied were still studied and analyzed a bit separately from the context and social aspects of the culture around the dance. Beginning in the mid eighties, there has been a reflexively interpretive way of writing about dance in culture that is more conscious of the impact of the scholar within the field and how it affects the culture and its relationship with the dance that the scholar is looking into.

In contrast, this newer wave of study wanted a more open study of dance within a culture. Additionally, there was a shift for a more mutual give and take between the scholar and the subjects, who in field work, also assist the scholars as teachers and informants. Although there are many similarities between ethnochoreology and ethnomusicology, there is a large difference between the current geographical scope of released studies. International Council for Traditional Music. With the objectives of promoting research, documentation, and interdisciplinary study of dance; providing a forum for cooperation among scholars and students of ethnochoreology by means of international meetings, publications, and correspondence; and contributing to cultural and societal understandings of humanity through the lens of dance, the Study Group meets biennially for a conference.

The "Congress on Research in Dance". CORD's purposes are stated to be to encourage research in all aspects of dance and related fields;to foster the exchange of ideas, resources, and methodologies through publications, international and regional conferences and workshops; and to promote the accessibility of research materials.

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For articles on significant individuals in this discipline, see the List of ethnomusicologists. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the ethnomusicological society and journal, see Society for Ethnomusicology. Basic concepts. Color symbolism Visual culture Body culture Material culture New media. Case studies. Related articles. Major theorists. Outline History. Archaeological Biological Cultural Linguistic Social. Social Cultural.

Research framework. Key concepts. Key theories. Actor—network theory Alliance theory Cross-cultural studies Cultural materialism Culture theory Diffusionism Feminism Historical particularism Boasian anthropology Functionalism Interpretive Performance studies Political economy Practice theory Structuralism Post-structuralism Systems theory.

Anthropologists by nationality Anthropology by year Bibliography Journals List of indigenous peoples Organizations. Main articles: Folklore and Folklore studies. Main article: Culture in music cognition. See also: Music psychology. Main article: List of universities with ethnomusicology programmes. Main article: Ethnochoreology.

Music portal. London: Oxford University Press. The Study of Ethnomusicology. Urbana, Ill. Worlds of Music 2nd ed. New York: Schirmer. In Willi Apel ed. Harvard Dictionary of Music 2nd ed. Cambridge, Mass. In Sadie, Stanley ed. New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians 2nd ed. London: Macmillan. Urbana: University of Illinois, Helen Myers, New York: Norton. In Merriam-Webster Online. Bohlman, and Martin Stokes. Sadie, Hungarian Folk Music. Folk Song Style and Culture. Accessed 13 Dec.

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Ellis and His Place in the History of Ethnomusicology. Nettl and P. Bohlman, — Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Urbana: U of Illinois, Sanford and Son. The Anthropology of Music. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press. Powerhouse for God. Austin: University of Texas Press. New York: Oxford UP. Frith and A. Goodwin, New York: Pantheon Books.

New York: Pantheon. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. Clayton, T. Herbert and R. Middleton, New York and London: Routledge. Chapter 6. Illinois Department of Music. Retrieved XLI, no. Meyers, Berkeley: University of California Press. Studies in Musicology — Chapter 4. Pages and Apples and Oranges. You Will Never Understand this Music. New York: Vintage. Philadelphia: Temple UP. My Music. Second edition, ed. Willi Apel, Cambridge: Harvard UP. Chapter 1. The African Imagination in Music. New York: Oxford University Press. Washington D. Oxford: Berg.

Patriotism and Nationalism in Music Education. Edited by Martin Stokes. Nationalists, Cosmopolitans, and Popular Music in Zimbabwe. Music, Race, and Nation. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press. In: Hebert, D. New York: Springer. Psychology of Music: From Sound to Significance. Pitch, consonance, and harmony. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 55, — Absolute pitch identification: Effects of timbre and pitch region.

Music Perception, 7, Thresholds for discrimination between pure and tempered intervals: The relevance of nearly coinciding harmonics. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America , 77, Tonal fusion of consonant musical intervals. Intervals, scales, and tuning. Deutsch Ed. Anchoring effects in music: The resolution of dissonance. Cognitive Psychology, 16, Response delays and the timing of discrete motor responses. Until now the focus in ethnomusicological writing and teaching centered around analyses and ethnographic representations of musical cultures.

This book signals a new fieldwork, shifting the balance away from the data-collecting model toward an approach that is reflexive, humanistic, and experiential. It makes provocative reading for all fieldworkers, those in ethnomusicology as well as anthropology, sociology, folklore, area studies, linguistics, and other ethnographic disciplines.

Bruno Nettl, Ethnomusicology in the 1960s

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