Topic 21 Vetiver- Importance , chemical composition origin, distribution, area, production, climate and soil requirements, propagation techniques, planting and after care, nutritional requirements, plant protection , harvesting and extraction of essential oil. Questions 21 Quiz. Topic 22 Rosemary and Thyme - Importance , chemical composition ,origin, distribution, area, production, climate and soil requirements, types and varieties , propagation techniques, planting and after care, nutritional requirements, plant protection , harvesting and extraction of oil.
Topic 23 Scented geranium - Importance , chemical composition, origin, distribution, area, production, climate and soil requirements, varieties , propagation techniques, planting and after care, nutritional requirements, plant protection , harvesting and distillation of oil. Questions 23 Quiz. Topic 24 Patchouli- Importance , chemical composition ,origin, distribution, area, production, climate and soil requirements, varieties , propagation techniques, planting and after care, nutritional requirements, growth regulators, intercropping, plant protection , harvesting and distillation of oil.
Questions 24 Quiz. Topic 25 Ocimum - Importance , chemical composition origin, distribution, area, production, climate and soil requirements, types and varieties , propagation techniques, planting and after care, training and pruning, nutritional requirements, plant protection , harvesting and distillation of oil.
Diseases and pests Page. Questions 25 Quiz. Topic 26 Artemisia - Importance , chemical composition origin, distribution, area, production, climate and soil requirements, propagation techniques, planting and after care, nutritional requirements, Growth regulator application, plant protection , harvesting and extraction of oil. Artimisia annua. Harvesting, processing and Yield Page. Artemisia pallens. Description of the Plant Page.
Topic 27 Ambrette - Importance , chemical composition, origin, distribution, area, production, climate and soil requirements, propagation techniques, planting and after care, nutritional requirements, plant protection , harvesting and extraction of oil. Plant description Page. Questions 27 Quiz. Topic 28 French Jasmine - Importance , chemical composition origin, distribution, area, production, climate and soil requirements, species and varieties , propagation techniques, planting and after care, pruning, intercropping, nutritional requirements, plant protection , harvesting , packaging and extraction of oil.
Harvesting and oil extraction Page. Questions 28 Quiz. Topic 29 Oil bearing rose - Importance , chemical composition origin, distribution, area, production, climate and soil requirements, varieties , propagation techniques, planting and after care, training and pruning, nutritional requirements, plant protection , rejuvenation , harvesting and extraction of oil. Flowering, Harvesting, yield and Distillation of flowers Page.
Rejuvenation Page. Questions 29 Quiz. Topic 30 Tuberose Polianthes tuberosa L. Questions 30 Quiz. Topic 31 Lavender - Importance , chemical composition origin, distribution, area, production, climate and soil requirements, varieties , propagation techniques, planting and after care, training and pruning, nutritional requirements, plant protection , harvesting regeneration of old plantation and extraction of oil. Harvesting, Extraction of essential oil and Yield Page.
Questions 32 Quiz. Topic 32 Organic production of Medicinal plants. Bio inputs in organic production and other versions of organic farming Page. Other versions of organic farming Page. Organic certification Page. Various Organic standards Page. Requirement for organic certification Page.
Certification agencies Page. Certification requirements. Organic production standards Conversion requirements Page. Crop production standards Page. International certification Page. International organic certification agency Page. Steps in organic certification Page. Topic 33 Good Agricultural Practices for Medicinal plants. Objectives Page. Structure Page.
Good collection practices for medicinal plants Page. Post-harvest processing Page. Use of aromatic plants and their products has gained momentum globally during recent times with wide applications in the herbal drug industry. Natural resources such as wastelands and forests could serve as reservoir for the same. However, with the increasing burden on natural resources, alternatively, introduction of crops through cropping systems could help out to great extent with a check on activity including chemical composition.
Also, the scientific community must be encouraged to focus studies to screen more and more aromatic compounds of plant origin for their different bioactivities, including radioprotection, and to explore the molecular mechanisms involved for the same. The enhanced adverse effect of synthetic drugs and antibiotics has paved way toward the utilization of natural products of plant origin unambiguously in recent years.
The present review explored the protection against cellular damage resulting from radiation of approximately thirty aromatic plant extracts or plant-derived compounds. Reactive oxygen species such as superoxide anion, singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide and peroxyl radicals generated by ionizing radiation in biologic system causes cellular injury due to lesions in DNA and proteins. The radical scavenging and antioxidant properties such as reduction in radiation-induced lipid peroxidation are some of the notable characteristics of aromatic plant extracts studied in various models of radiation damage.
In most of the studies, it has been shown that while protecting against the detrimental effects of radiation, there is a capacity to significantly increase the survival rates of small animals exposed to radiation. Results of such studies point out possible applications during radiotherapy and could find application in treatment for victims of nuclear plant accidents or leakage, or radiation terrorism.
Aromatic plants and their products have gained momentum globally during recent times, with wide applications in the herbal drug industry. With the increasing burden on natural resources, alternatively, introduction of crops through cropping systems could help out to a great extent with checks on activity including chemical composition. Also, the scientific community must be encouraged to focus studies on screening more and more aromatic compounds of plant origin for their different bioactivities, including radioprotection, and to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the same.
We made our sincere and careful efforts to include and cite most of available reports and studies pertaining to radioprotection by aromatic plants and plant products however, exclusions if any, are regretted. Author contributions. RM Samarth was the designer of this study, revised and participated in writing the article, and is corresponding author. M Samarth gathered data and participated in writing the article. Y Matsumoto revised the final article. The authors have no relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript.
This includes employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents received or pending, or royalties. No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript. Open access. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Future Sci OA. Published online Sep Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received May 22; Accepted Aug This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Aromatic plants are often used as natural medicines because of their remedial and inherent pharmacological properties. Table 1.
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Summary of aromatic plants investigated for their radioprotective activity and their chemical constituents. Name of aromatic plant Plant part used Doses Test system and parameters studied Suggested possible mechanism Chemical constituents Ref. The oil content varies randomly from 0. Flavonoids and tannins also present in A. Quercetin, quercetin 4-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside and phenylalanine have been isolated from the bulb The major sulfur compounds are dimethyl trisulfide, propenyl propyl disulfide, dipropyl disulfide, propenylmethyldisulfide and methyl propyl trisulfide dipropyle trisulfide.
However, additional constituents of garlic include a wide range of primary and secondary nonsulfur biomolecules, such are steroidal glycosides, essential oil, flavonoids, anthocyanins, lectins, prostaglandins, fructan, pectin, adenosine, vitamins B1, B2, B6, C and E, biotin, nicotinic acid, fatty acids, glycolipids, phospholipids and essential amino acids [ 67 , 71—81 ] Capsicum annuum Pericalps 0.
An alkaloid, hydrocotylin has been isolated from the dried plants. The essential oil mainly composed of citral, which is a mixture of two stereoisomeric monterpene aldehydes; the trans isomer geranial and cis isomer neral. The leaves contain high amount of oxalic acid, leaves also contains crystalline glycosides, carbazole alkaloids, koenigin and resin. Fresh leaves contain volatile oil rich in vitamin A and calcium. Mahanimbicine, bicyclomahanimbicine, phebalosin, coumarine as Murrayone imperatoxin etc are isolated from leaves Triterpenoid alkaloids — cyclomahanimbine and tetrahydromahanmbine are present in the leaves.
Dried powder of the plant The essential oils of ten Piperaceae species shown that the most frequently identified compounds were sesquiterpenes. The chemical constituents include plumbagin, palmitic acid and myricyl palmitate from petrol extract, and plumbagic acid lactone, ayanin and azaleatin from ethyl acetate extract of roots [ — ] Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Open in a separate window. Radioprotection by medicinal aromatic plants Ageratum conyzoides The plant Ageratum belongs to the family Asteraceae, which consists of about 30 species.
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Allium cepa Allium cepa , belonging to the family Liliaceae that occurs worldwide, is a bulbous plant. Allium sativum Allium sativum L. Capsicum annuum Capsicum annuum L. Centella asiatica Centella asiatica belongs to family Umbellifere Apiaceae. Citrus aurantium Citrus aurantium belongs to the family Rutaceae.
Coleus aromaticus Coleus aromaticus , belonging to family Lamiaceae, is native to India and the Mediterranean and possesses various medicinal values. Coriandrum sativum Coriandrum sativum L. Crocus sativus Crocus sativus L. Curcuma longa Curcuma longa L. Cymbopogon citratus Cymbopogon citratus family Poaceae , commonly called lemon grass, is a widely used herb in tropical countries such as southeast Asia and Africa. Elettaria cordamomum Elettaria cordamomum is commonly called cardamom and belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. Illicium verum Illicium verum , commonly known as Star anise, belongs to the family Illiciaceae and is native to China and Vietnam.
Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula angustifolia belongs to the family Lamiaceae. Mangifera indica Mangifera indica belongs to the family Anacardiaceae and is commonly called mango or aam in Hindi. Murraya Koenigii Murraya koenigii L. Myristica fragrance Myristica fragrance belonging to family Myristicaceae is commonly called nutmeg and known for its antifungal, hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Nigella sativa Nigella sativa belongs to the family Ranunculaceae and is commonly called black seed.
Ocimum sanctum Ocimum sanctum L. Origanum vulgare L. Piper longum Piper longum belongs to family Piperaceae, and is commonly known as Pipali in India. Plumbago rosea Plumbago rosea L.
Salvia officinalis L. Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium aromaticum eastern hemisphere or Eugenia caryophyllata and Eugenia aromaticum western hemisphere belongs to family Myrtaceae and is a popular source of clove oil; the essential oil extracted from dried flower buds, leaves and stem of the tree [ ]. Syzygium cumini Syzigium cumini belongs to the family Myrtaceae and is also called Syzigium jambolanum or Eugenia cumini.
Valeriana wallichii Valeriana wallichii , belonging to the family Valerianaceae and popularly known as Indian Valerian, occurs throughout the World. Withania somnifera Withania somnifera , belonging to the family Solanaceae and popularly known as Indian ginseng or ashwagandha, is a perennial plant with medicinal importance in Ayurveda [ ]. Zingiber officinale Zingiber officinale is commonly called ginger and belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. Possible mechanisms of radioprotection by aromatic plants It is a well-known fact that radiation is a powerful cytotoxic agent.
Future perspective The enhanced adverse effects of synthetic drugs and antibiotics has paved way toward utilization of natural products of plant origin in recent years in developed as well as developing countries.
Executive summary. Acknowledgements We made our sincere and careful efforts to include and cite most of available reports and studies pertaining to radioprotection by aromatic plants and plant products however, exclusions if any, are regretted. Footnotes Author contributions RM Samarth was the designer of this study, revised and participated in writing the article, and is corresponding author.
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Antioxidant, anticlastogenic and radioprotective effect of Coleus aromaticus on Chinese hamster fibroblast cells V79 exposed to gamma radiation. Avbryt Send e-post. Biotechnology is being put to the service for mass clonal propagation of plants, and to produce impor- tant secondary products in cell cultures. Les mer. Om boka Medicinal and Aromatic Plants II Plants are a major source of medicines, flavors, fragrances, and various pharmaceutical and industrial products. In some cases cell cultures ac- cumulate higher amounts of products than the intact plant cells in situ, and such cultures can be stored through immobilization and cryopreser- vation.