Guidebook to R Graphics Using Microsoft Windows

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In this case, when the navigator object or the review cursor position is changed by means of explicit user interaction, NVDA will tether to review temporarily, until the focus or the caret changes. If enabled, braille will be displayed by paragraphs instead of lines. Also, the next and previous line commands will move by paragraph accordingly. This means that you do not have to scroll the display at the end of each line even where more text would fit on the display. This may allow for more fluent reading of large amounts of text. It is disabled by default. If this is enabled, a word which is too large to fit at the end of the braille display will not be split.

Instead, there will be some blank space at the end of the display. When you scroll the display, you will be able to read the entire word. This is sometimes called "word wrap". Note that if the word is too large to fit on the display even by itself, the word must still be split.

If this is disabled, as much of the word as possible will be displayed, but the rest will be cut off. When you scroll the display, you will then be able to read the rest of the word. Enabling this may allow for more fluent reading, but generally requires you to scroll the display more. This option allows you to choose what context information NVDA will show on the braille display when an object gets focus.

Context information refers to the hierarchy of objects containing the focus. For example, when you focus a list item, this list item is part of a list. This list might be contained by a dialog, etc. Please consult the section about object navigation for more information about the hierarchy that applies to objects in NVDA. When set to fill display for context changes, NVDA will try to display as much context information as possible on the braille display, but only for the parts of the context that have changed.

For the example above, this means that when changing focus to the list, NVDA will show the list item on the braille display. Furthermore, if there is enough space left on the braille display, NVDA will try to show that the list item is part of a list. If you then start moving through the list with your arrow keys, it is assumed that you are aware that you are still in the list. Thus, for the remaining list items you focus, NVDA will only show the focused list item on the display.

In order for you to read the context again i. When this option is set to always fill the display, NVDA will try to show as much context information as possible on the braille display, regardless of whether you have seen the same context information before. This has the advantage that NVDA will fit as much information as possible on the display. However, the downside is that there is always a difference in the position where the focus starts on the braille display. This can make it difficult to skim a long list of items, for example, as you will need to continually move your finger to find the start of the item.

This was the default behavior for NVDA When you set the focus context presentation option to only show the context information when scrolling back, NVDA never shows context information on your braille display by default. Thus, in the example above, NVDA will display that you focused a list item. However, in order for you to read the context i. To toggle focus context presentation from anywhere, please assign a custom gesture using the Input Gestures dialog.

The Select Braille Display dialog, which can be opened by activating the Change Once you have selected your braille display of choice, you can press Ok and NVDA will load the selected display. If there is an error loading the display driver, NVDA will notify you with a message, and continue using the previous display, if any. This combo box presents you with several options depending on what braille display drivers are available on your system.

Move between these options with the arrow keys. The automatic option will allow NVDA to search for many supported braille displays in the background. When this feature is enabled and you connect a supported display using USB or bluetooth, NVDA will automatically connect with this display. Please see the Supported Braille Displays section for more information about supported braille displays and which of these support automatic detection in the background. This option, if available, allows you to choose what port or type of connection will be used to communicate with the braille display you have selected.

It is a combo box containing the possible choices for your braille display. By default, NVDA employs automatic port detection, which means the connection with the braille device will be established automatically by scanning for available USB and bluetooth devices on your system. However, for some braille displays, you may be able to explicitly choose what port should be used. Common options are "Automatic" which tells NVDA to employ the default automatic port selection procedure , "USB", "Bluetooth" and legacy serial communication ports if your braille display supports this type of communication.

You may consult the documentation for your braille display in the section Supported Braille Displays to check for more details on the supported types of communication and available ports. This settings category contains the following options:. This combo box lets you choose what type of keyboard layout NVDA should use. The checkboxes in this list control what keys can be used as NVDA modifier keys. The following keys are available to choose from:. After dismissing the error message, you must select at least one before being able to press Ok to dismiss the dialog properly.

If on, this option will cause speech to be interrupted each time a character is typed. This is on by default. If on, this option will cause speech to be interrupted each time the Enter key is pressed. If on, certain navigation commands such as quick navigation in browse mode or moving by line or paragraph do not stop Say All, rather Say All jumps to the new position and continues reading.

When enabled, a warning beep will be heard if a letter is typed with the shift key while caps lock is on. Generally, typing shifted letters with caps lock is unintentional and is usually due to not realizing that caps lock is enabled. Therefore, it can be quite helpful to be warned about this. When enabled, NVDA will announce all non-character keys you type on the keyboard. This includes key combinations such as control plus another letter. When enabled, a short buzzer sound will be played when a word you type contains a spelling error. This option allows the user to control if key presses generated by applications such as on-screen keyboards and speech recognition software should be processed by NVDA.

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This option is on by default, though certain users may wish to turn this off, such as those typing Vietnamese with the Unikey typing software as it will cause incorrect character input. A checkbox, that when checked means that NVDA will announce the shape of the mouse pointer each time it changes. The mouse pointer in Windows changes shape to convey certain information such as when something is editable, or when something is loading etc.

When enabled, NVDA will announce the text currently under the mouse pointer, as you move it around the screen. This allows you to find things on the screen, by physically moving the mouse, rather than trying to find them through object navigation. If NVDA is set to announce the text under the mouse as you move it, this option allows you to choose exactly how much text will be spoken.

The options are character, word, line and paragraph. To toggle text unit resolution from anywhere, please assign a custom gesture using the Input Gestures dialog. If this checkbox is checked, NVDA will announce the role type of object as the mouse moves inside it. Checking this checkbox makes NVDA play beeps as the mouse moves, so that the user can work out where the mouse is in regards to the dimensions of the screen. If the "play audio coordinates when mouse moves" checkbox is checked, then checking this checkbox means that the volume of the audio coordinates beeps is controlled by how bright the screen is under the mouse.

This setting is unchecked by default. This option allows the user to ignore mouse events including mouse movement and button presses generated by other applications such as TeamViewer and other remote control software. This option is unchecked by default. If you check this option and you have the "Enable mouse tracking" option enabled, NVDA will not announce what is under the mouse if the mouse is moved by another application. This settings category, only available on computers running Windows 8 and later with touch capabilities, allows you to configure how NVDA interacts with touchscreens.

This checkbox allows you to specify the method you wish to use when entering text using the touch keyboard. If this checkbox is checked, when you locate a key on the touch keyboard, you can lift your finger and the selected key will be pressed. If this is unchecked, you need to double-tap on the touch keyboard key to press the key. When enabled, The review cursor will always be placed in the same object as the current system focus whenever the focus changes. When enabled, the review cursor will automatically be moved to the position of the System caret each time it moves.

When enabled, NVDA will filter the hierarchy of objects that can be navigated to exclude objects that aren't of interest to the user; e. To toggle simple review mode from anywhere, please assign a custom gesture using the Input Gestures dialog. A checkbox that when checked tells NVDA to report tool tips as they appear. Many Windows and controls show a small message or tool tip when you move the mouse pointer over them, or sometimes when you move the focus to them. This checkbox when checked tells NVDA to report help balloons as they appear.

Help Balloons are like tool tips, but are usually larger in size, and are associated with system events such as a network cable being unplugged, or perhaps to alert you about Windows security issues. When this checkbox is checked, NVDA will include the shortcut key that is associated with a certain object or control when it is reported. This option lets you choose whether you wish to have an object's position e. If reporting of object position information is turned on, this option allows NVDA to guess object position information when it is otherwise unavailable for a particular control.

When on, NVDA will report position information for more controls such as menus and toolbars, however this information may be slightly inaccurate. This is an option that, when checked, tells NVDA to keep reporting a progress bar, even if it is not physically in the foreground. If you minimize or switch away from a window that contains a progress bar, NVDA will keep track of it, allowing you to do other things while NVDA tracks the progress bar. Toggles the announcement of new content in particular objects such as terminals and the history control in chat programs.

Toggles announcement of appearance of auto-suggestions, and if enabled, NVDA will play a sound to indicate this. Auto-suggestions are lists of suggested entries based on text entered into certain edit fields and documents. For example, when you enter text into the search box in Start menu in Windows Vista and later, Windows displays a list of suggestions based on what you typed. For some edit fields such as search fields in various Windows 10 apps, NVDA can notify you that a list of suggestions has appeared when you type text.

The auto-suggestions list will close once you move away from the edit field, and for some fields, NVDA can notify you of this when this happens. Note that due to the fact that input methods vary greatly by available features and by how they convey information, it will most likely be necessary to configure these options differently for each input method to get the most efficient typing experience.

This option, which is on by default, allows you to choose whether or not all visible candidates should be reported automatically when a candidate list appears or its page is changed. Having this option on for pictographic input methods such as Chinese New ChangJie or Boshiami is useful, as you can automatically hear all symbols and their numbers and you can choose one right away. However, for phonetic input methods such as Chinese New Phonetic, it may be more useful to turn this option off, as all the symbols will sound the same and you will have to use the arrow keys to navigate the list items individually to gain more information from the character descriptions for each candidate.

This option, which is on by default, allows you to choose whether NVDA should announce the selected candidate when a candidate list appears or when the selection is changed. For input methods where the selection can be changed with the arrow keys such as Chinese New Phonetic this is necessary, but for some input methods it may be more efficient typing with this option turned off.

Guidebook To R Graphics Using Microsoft Windows

This option, which is on by default, allows you to choose whether or not NVDA should provide a short description for each character in a candidate, either when it's selected or when it's automatically read when the candidate list appears. Note that for locales such as Chinese, the announcement of extra character descriptions for the selected candidate is not affected by this option. This option may be useful for Korean and Japanese input methods. Some input methods such as Chinese New Phonetic and New ChangJie have a reading string sometimes known as a precomposition string.

You can choose whether or not NVDA should announce new characters being typed into this reading string with this option. This option is on by default. Note some older input methods such as Chinese ChangJie may not use the reading string to hold precomposition characters, but instead use the composition string directly. Please see the next option for configuring reporting of the composition string. After reading or precomposition data has been combined into a valid pictographic symbol, most input methods place this symbol into a composition string for temporary storage along with other combined symbols before they are finally inserted into the document.

This option allows you to choose whether or not NVDA should report new symbols as they appear in the composition string. This field sets the amount of lines you will move by when pressing page up or page down while in browse mode. This option allows you to specify whether content in browse mode should place content such as links and other fields on their own line, or if it should keep them in the flow of text as it is visually shown. If the option is enabled then things will stay as they are visually shown, but if it is disabled then fields will be placed on their own line.

This checkbox toggles whether browse mode should be automatically enabled when loading a page. When this option is disabled, browse mode can still be manually activated on pages or in documents where browse mode is supported. See the Browse Mode section for a list of applications supported by browse mode. Note that this option does not apply to situations where browse mode is always optional, e. This checkbox toggles the automatic reading of a page after it loads in browse mode.

This option affects how NVDA handles tables used purely for layout purposes. When on, NVDA will treat these as normal tables, reporting them based on Document Formatting Settings and locating them with quick navigation commands. When off, they will not be reported nor found with quick navigation. However, the content of the tables will still be included as normal text. This option is turned off by default. To toggle inclusion of layout tables from anywhere, please assign a custom gesture using the Input Gestures dialog.

Please see the options in the Document Formatting category of the NVDA Settings dialog to configure the fields that are reported when navigating, such as links, headings and tables. This option allows focus mode to be invoked if focus changes. For example, when on a web page, if you press tab and you land on a form, if this option is checked, focus mode will automatically be invoked. This option, when checked, allows NVDA to enter and leave focus mode when using arrow keys. For example, if arrowing down a web page and you land on an edit box, NVDA will automatically bring you into focus mode.

If you arrow out of the edit box, NVDA will put you back in browse mode. If this option is enabled, NVDA will play special sounds when it switches between browse mode and focus mode, rather than speaking the change. Enabled by default, this option allows you to choose if gestures such as key presses that do not result in an NVDA command and are not considered to be a command key in general, should be trapped from going through to the document you are currently focused on. As an example, if enabled, if the letter j was pressed, it would be trapped from reaching the document, even though it is not a quick navigation command nor is it likely to be a command in the application itself.

Most of the checkboxes in this category are for configuring what type of formatting you wish to have reported as you move the cursor around documents. For example, if you check the report font name checkbox, each time you arrow onto text with a different font, the name of the font will be announced. To toggle these settings from anywhere, please assign custom gestures using the Input Gestures dialog. If enabled, this setting tells NVDA to try and detect all the formatting changes on a line as it reports it, even if doing this may slow down NVDA's performance.

Enable this option while proof reading documents in applications such as WordPad, where formatting is important. This option allows you to configure how indentation at the beginning of lines is reported. The Report line indentation with combo box has four options. The settings in this category allow you to configure Windows 10 OCR. The settings in this category are for advanced users and may cause NVDA to not function correctly if configured in the wrong way.

Only make changes to these settings if you are sure you know what you are doing or if you have been specifically instructed to by an NVDA developer. In order to make changes to the advanced settings, the controls must be enabled by confirming, with the checkbox, that you understand the risks of modifying these settings. The button restores the default values for the settings, even if the confirmation checkbox is not ticked. After changing settings you may wish to revert to the default values.

This may also be the case if you are unsure if the settings have been changed. When developing add-ons for NVDA, it is useful to be able to test code as you are writing it. Previously NVDA would load custom code directly from the user configuration directory, with no way of disabling this. This option is off by default, ensuring that no untested code is ever run in NVDA with out the user's explicit knowledge.

If you wish to distribute custom code to others, you should package it as an NVDA add-on. This button opens the directory where you can place custom code while developing it. This includes in Microsoft Word itself, and also the Microsoft Outlook message viewer and composer. However, There may be some information which is either not exposed, or exposed incorrectly in some versions of Microsoft Office, which means this UI automation support cannot always be relied upon.

When this option is enabled, NVDA will use a new, work in progress version of its support for Windows Console which takes advantage of accessibility improvements made by Microsoft. This feature is highly experimental and is still incomplete, so its use is not yet recommended. However, once completed, it is anticipated that this new support will become the default, improving NVDA's performance and stability in Windows command consoles. This setting controls whether characters are spoken by speak typed characters or speak typed words in situations where the screen does not update such as password entry in the Windows Console with UI automation support enabled.

For security purposes, this setting should be left disabled. Enabled by default, this option allows you to choose if the system focus should automatically be set to elements that can take the system focus links, form fields, etc. If enabled, this represents default behavior of NVDA as of version Disabling this option will not automatically focus focusable elements when they are selected with the browse mode caret.

This might result in faster browsing experience and better responsiveness in browse mode. The focus will yet be updated to the particular element when interacting with it e.

This functionality is experimental as of NVDA This option allows you to configure the number of milliseconds NVDA will wait for the caret insertion point to move in editable text controls. The checkboxes in this list allow you to enable specific categories of debug messages in NVDA's log. Logging these messages can resort in decreased performance and large log files.

Only turn one of these on if specifically instructed to by an NVDA developer e. The speech dictionaries menu found in the Preferences menu contains dialogs that allow you to manage the way NVDA pronounces particular words or phrases. There are currently three different types of speech dictionaries. They are:. You need to assign custom gestures using the Input Gestures dialog if you wish to open any of these dictionary dialogs from anywhere.

All dictionary dialogs contain a list of rules which will be used for processing the speech. The dialog also contains Add, Edit and Remove buttons. To add a new rule to the dictionary, press the Add button, and fill in the fields in the dialog box that appears and then press Ok. You will then see your new rule in the list of rules. The rules for NVDA's speech dictionaries allow you to change one string of characters into another. For example, you could create a rule which causes NVDA to say the word "frog" instead of "bird" whenever the word "bird" is encountered.

In the Add rule dialog, the easiest way to do this is to type the word bird in the Pattern field, and the word frog in the Replacement field. You may also want to type a description of the rule in the Comment field something like: changes bird to frog. NVDA's speech dictionaries however are much more powerful than simple word replacement. The Add rule dialog also contains a checkbox to say whether or not you want the rule to be case sensitive meaning that NVDA should care whether the characters are uppercase or lowercase.

NVDA ignores case by default. Finally, a set of radio buttons allows you to tell NVDA whether your pattern should match anywhere, should only match if it is a complete word or should be treated as a "Regular expression". Setting the pattern to match as a whole word means that the replacement will only be made if the pattern does not occur as part of a larger word; i. Thus, using the earlier example of replacing the word "bird" with "frog", if you were to make this a whole word replacement, it would not match "birds" or "bluebird".

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A regular expression is a pattern containing special symbols that allow you to match on more than one character at a time, or match on just numbers, or just letters, as a few examples. Regular expressions are not covered in this user guide, but there are many tutorials on the web which can provide you with more information. This dialog allows you to change the way punctuation and other symbols are pronounced, as well as the symbol level at which they are spoken.

The language for which symbol pronunciation is being edited will be shown in the dialog's title. Note that this dialog respects the "Trust voice's language for processing symbols and characters" option found in the Speech category of the NVDA Settings dialog; i. To change a symbol, first select it in the Symbols list. You can filter the symbols by entering the symbol or a part of the symbol's replacement into the Filter by edit box. You can add new symbols by pressing the Add button. In the dialog that appears, enter the symbol and press the OK button. Then, change the fields for the new symbol as you would for other symbols.

When you are finished, press the OK button to save your changes or the Cancel button to discard them. In this dialog, you can customize the input gestures keys on the keyboard, buttons on a braille display, etc. Only commands that are applicable immediately before the dialog is opened are shown. For example, if you want to customize commands related to browse mode, you should open the Input Gestures dialog while you are in browse mode. The tree in this dialog lists all of the applicable NVDA commands grouped by category. You can filter them by entering one or more words from the command's name into the Filter by edit box in any order.

Any gestures associated with a command are listed beneath the command. To add an input gesture to a command, select the command and press the Add button. Then, perform the input gesture you wish to associate; e. Often, a gesture can be interpreted in more than one way. For example, if you pressed a key on the keyboard, you may wish it to be specific to the current keyboard layout e.

In this case, a menu will appear allowing you to select the desired option. When you are finished making changes, press the OK button to save them or the Cancel button to discard them. By default NVDA will automatically save your settings on exit. Note, however, that this option can be changed under the general options in the preferences menu. If you ever make a mistake with your settings and need to revert back to the saved settings, choose the "revert to saved configuration" item in the NVDA menu.

Sometimes, you may wish to have different settings for different situations. For example, you may wish to have reporting of indentation enabled while you are editing or reporting of font attributes enabled while you are proofreading. NVDA allows you to do this using configuration profiles.

A configuration profile contains only those settings which are changed while the profile is being edited. Configuration profiles can be manually activated either from a dialog or using custom added gestures. They can also be activated automatically due to triggers such as switching to a particular application. You can also do this using a key command:.

The first control in this dialog is the profile list from which you can select one of the available profiles. When you open the dialog, the profile you are currently editing is selected. In the New Profile dialog, you can enter a name for the profile. You can also select how this profile should be used. If you only want to use this profile manually, select Manual activation, which is the default. Otherwise, select a trigger which should automatically activate this profile.

For convenience, if you haven't entered a name for the profile, selecting a trigger will fill in the name accordingly. See below for more information about triggers. Pressing OK will create the profile and close the Configuration Profiles dialog so you can edit it. You can manually activate a profile by selecting a profile and pressing the Manual activate button.

Once activated, other profiles can still be activated due to triggers, but any settings in the manually activated profile will override them. For example, if a profile is triggered for the current application and reporting of links is enabled in that profile but disabled it in the manually activated profile, links will not be reported. However, if you have changed the voice in the triggered profile but have never changed it in the manually activated profile, the voice from the triggered profile will be used.

Any settings you change will be saved in the manually activated profile. To deactivate a manually activated profile, select it in the Configuration Profiles dialog and press the Manual deactivate button. Pressing the Triggers button in the Configuration Profiles dialog allows you to change the profiles which should be automatically activated for various triggers.

To change the profile which should be automatically activated for a trigger, select the trigger and then select the desired profile from the Profile list. You can select " normal configuration " if you don't want a profile to be used. If you have manually activated a profile, any settings you change will be saved to that profile. Otherwise, any settings you change will be saved to the most recently triggered profile. For example, if you have associated a profile with the Notepad application and you switch to Notepad, any changed settings will be saved to that profile.

Finally, if there is neither a manually activated nor a triggered profile, any settings you change will be saved to your normal configuration. To edit the profile associated with say all, you must manually activate that profile. Sometimes, it is useful to temporarily disable all triggers. For example, you might wish to edit a manually activated profile or your normal configuration without triggered profiles interfering. You can do this by checking the Temporarily disable all triggers checkbox in the Configuration Profiles dialog.

To toggle disabling triggers from anywhere, please assign a custom gesture using the Input Gestures dialog. For every profile you add, you are able to assign one or more input gestures to activate it. By default, configuration profiles do not have input gestures assigned. You can add gestures to activate a profile using the Input Gestures dialog. Every profile has its own entry under the configuration profiles category. When you rename a profile, any gesture you added previously will still be available. Removing a profile will automatically delete the gestures associated with it. This means that each user on the system can have their own NVDA settings.

Usually, this configuration should not be touched. Apart from reading the content, you can also Save a copy of the log file, or refresh the viewer so that it shows the most recent output since the Log viewer was opened. These actions are available under the viewer's Log menu. For sighted software developers or people demoing NVDA to sighted audiences, a floating window is available that allows you to view all the text that NVDA is currently speaking. Uncheck the menu item to disable it. The speech viewer window contains a check box labeled "Show speech viewer on startup".

If this is checked, the speech viewer will open when NVDA is started. The speech viewer window will always attempt to re-open with the same dimensions and location as when it was closed. While the speech viewer is enabled, it constantly updates to show you the most current text being spoken. However, if you click or focus inside the viewer, NVDA will temporarily stop updating the text, so that you are able to easily select or copy the existing content. To toggle the speech viewer from anywhere, please assign a custom gesture using the Input Gestures dialog. These packages are provided by the community and contain custom code that may add or change features in NVDA or even provide support for extra Braille displays or speech synthesizers.

The Add-ons Manager contains a list that displays all the add-ons currently installed in your NVDA user configuration. Package name, status, version and author are shown for each add-on, though further information such as a description and URL can be viewed by selecting the add-on and pressing the About add-on button. If there is help available for the selected add-on, you can access it by pressing the Add-on help button. To browse and download available add-ons online, press the Get add-ons button.

If NVDA is installed and running on your system, you can open the add-on directly from the browser to begin the installation process as described below. Otherwise, save the add-on package and follow the instructions below. To install an Add-on you previously obtained, press the Install button.

This will allow you to browse for an add-on package. Once you press Open, the installation process will begin. When an add-on is being installed, NVDA will first ask you to confirm that you really wish to install the add-on. As the functionality of add-ons is unrestricted inside NVDA, which in theory could include accessing your personal data or even the entire system if NVDA is an installed copy, it is very important to only install add-ons from sources you trust.

Once the add-on is installed, NVDA must be restarted for the add-on to start running. Until you do, a status of "install" will show for that add-on in the list. To remove an add-on, select the add-on from the list and press the Remove button. NVDA will ask if you really wish to do this. As with installing, NVDA must be restarted for the add-on to be fully removed.

Until you do, a status of "remove" will be shown for that add-on in the list. To disable an add-on, press the "disable" button. To enable a previously disabled add-on, press the "enable" button. You can disable an add-on if the add-on status indicates it is "enabled", or enable it if the add-on is "disabled".

If the add-on was previously "disabled", a status will show "enabled after restart". If the add-on was previously "enabled", a status will show "disabled after restart" Just like when you install or remove add-ons, you need to restart NVDA in order for changes to take effect. The manager also has a Close button to close the dialog. If you have installed, removed or changed the status of an add-on, NVDA will first ask you if you wish to restart so that your changes can take effect. Some older add-ons may no longer be compatible with the version of NVDA that you have.

When using an older version of NVDA, some new add-ons may not be compatible either. Attempting to install an incompatible add-on will result in an error explaining why the add-on is considered incompatible. To inspect these incompatible add-ons, you can use the "view incompatible add-ons" button to launch the incompatible add-ons manager. To access the Add-ons Manager from anywhere, please assign a custom gesture using the Input Gestures dialog. The Incompatible Add-ons Manager, which can be accessed via the "view incompatible add-ons" buttons in the Add-on manager, allows you to inspect any incompatible add-ons, and the reason they are considered incompatible.

Add-ons are considered incompatible when they have not been updated to work with significant changes to NVDA, or when they rely on a feature not available in the version of NVDA you are using. The Incompatible add-ons manager has a short message to explain its purpose as well as the version of NVDA. The incompatible add-ons are presented in a list with the following columns:. The Incompatible add-ons manager also has an "About add-on This opens will let you know the full details of the add-on, which is helpful when contacting the add-on author.

This item, once activated, reloads app modules and global plugins without restarting NVDA, which can be useful for developers. This section contains information about the speech synthesizers supported by NVDA. Points are rarely used except for expressing the size of a font. Also, see the twips ruler inside the back cover of this book. Add N twips of vertical space before this paragraph. By default, this is 0. Add N twips of vertical space after this paragraph. There are three paragraph-formatting commands that control indenting , in various ways:.

Indent the first line of this paragraph by N twips. This command and the following command control block indenting , i. Bear in mind that the left and right margin do not mean the left and right edge of the page; typically, the margins are an inch in from the edge of the page. For more about changing the margins, see the Page Margins section later. There are seven commands that control how the pagebreaking and linebreaking settings interact with paragraphs:. Try to avoid a pagebreak between this paragraph and the next—i.

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This command is often used on headings, to keep them together with the following text paragraph. Turn on widow-and-orphans control for this paragraph. This is a feature that tries to avoid breaking a paragraph between its first and second lines, or between its second-to-last and last lines, since breaking in either place looks awkward.

Turn off widow-and-orphans control for this paragraph. This turns on automatic hyphenation for this paragraph. This command turns off automatic hyphenation for this paragraph. To have just 1. For example, in WordPerfect, the internal code for line-spacing can be set anywhere in any paragraph—it takes effect starting on that line, and can last for the rest of the document. Why does RTF do it that way?

Paragraphs are usually placed below the previous one and against the left margin. However, in some cases, such as when printing labels, you need to print text at a specific spot on the page. The paragraph will be 4, twips wide:. Normally, the paragraph and any border around it extends just as far down as the paragraph needs in order to show all its lines. If you have borders on this paragraph, any added space will be between the bottom of the paragraph and the bottom border instead of just being under the bottom border.

For example, the following paragraph will be inside a box created by the border lines 5, twips high:. If the current font and point size makes the text take up only a part of the space in that box, then there is just blank space left at the bottom. But if the text is too large to fit in that box, the extra text is hidden. We will also see a very similar construct for table cell borders in the Preliminaries section of this book. It makes no difference to the word processor interpreting the RTF. When you have character-formatting commands at the start of the document i.

When you have a series of formatting commands that apply to the same bit of text—i. Either way is absolutely valid RTF. A nonbreaking space is a character that looks like a space. Whereas the word processor can break lines at a space character, it will never do so at a nonbreaking space character. This avoids confusion in the case of hyphens occurring in email addresses, URLs, and other kinds of computerese. That is, if you were reading a discussion of Lisp functions, and saw the following:. If hyphenation is turned on for the document, the word processor will try to make the text wrap nicely by hyphenating words.

This is discussed in greater detail in the Document Structure section. Unicode characters are characters over , usually in the range to 65, For example, the Chinese character is character 36,, and the character is character 21, If the character is between 32, and 65,, subtract 65, from it, and use the resulting negative number.

For example, the symbol is character , About the best we can do in such cases is to try to find a font that has that character at some lower character number. Or, in complete desperation, you could embed an image of the character; see the section Embedding Images. For example, the first five characters of the Tao Te Ching are these:. While the above rules hold for normal printable characters, there are four exceptions worth noting: the ASCII newline character, the ASCII form-feed character, the Latin-1 nonbreaking space, and the Latin-1 soft hyphen.

Although the specification for expressing Unicode in RTF is over five years old, support for RTF in different applications is still somewhat hit-or-miss. MSWord tries to do that kind of helpful substitution, but it does not do it reliably. Oddly, WordPad write. In any case, in order to use a Unicode character, try to use a font that provides the character. There are exceptions, however.

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An RTF document consists of a prolog , a font table , an optional color table , an optional stylesheet , an optional info group , preliminaries , content i. The 1 indicates the version of RTF being used.

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Currently, 1 is the only version there has ever been. The way to declare a character set is with one of these commands:. This is basically Latin-1 ISO with some characters added between and In theory, this is the default for RTF. The document is in the MacAscii character set, the usual character set under old pre versions of Mac OS. That is about the only use that CP sees these days. The bad news is that you may be using codes outside that range without noticing it, such as smart quotes, long dashes, or the like.

What font the number N actually indicates is defined in the font table that follows. For example, this is a very common prolog, which declares the RTF document to be in the ANSI character set, and picks font 0 as the default font:. A font table lists all the fonts that can be used in this document and associates a number with each one. The font table is required, although some programs will tolerate a file that has no font table. The RTF specification suggests that the declaration is syntactically needed, but hardly any word processors actually require it; for sake of brevity, almost all the examples in this book leave out the declaration.

The color table is where you define all the colors that might be used in this document. Each declaration has this basic syntax:. This convention is used for the first entry in the color table. This example color table declares entry 0 with the default text color, entry 1 as red, entry 2 as blue, entry 3 as white, and entry 4a as black:. See the Changing Text Color section for a further discussion of color commands. In hardcopy, there is no difference, because the default color for print is black.

But on screen, the default color can be anything. For example, suppose MSWindows is running and the Display Properties: Appearance control panel is set to make the default window style appear as white text on a dark blue background. And given that the background color is dark blue, that black text will be quite hard to read—unless, of course, the RTF document also specifies a different background color such as yellow , in which case, the text will display more readably, as black on yellow.

A stylesheet is where you declare any styles that you might use in the document. A stylesheet is optional. The semantics and usage of stylesheets is discussed in detail later in the Styles section, so we will focus just on the syntax here. A paragraph style definition has this syntax:. Avoid using commas or semicolons in the style name. The formatting commands here should be just character-formatting commands, without any paragraph-formatting commands. See the Styles section for more details.

Incidentally, in both paragraph style and character style definitions, the formatting commands section is free to consist of nothing at all. Those two styles could be part of a complete stylesheet that looks like this:.

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The optional info group stores document metadata. Metadata is information that describes the document, but is not actually in the document such as would appear when paging through the document on screen or in hardcopy. The RTF specification defines about two dozen metadata field-name commands as well as a syntax for declaring additional field-names , but here we discuss only the following common fields:.

Note that no formatting commands are allowed in info group values. Declares when this document was first created as opposed to merely modified. For example, in the unlikely event that a document was created at the moment that the first person set foot on the moon, at July 20, , at p. Stores any miscellaneous comments about the document. Useful information to store includes things like the name and version number of the program that produced or translated the document possibly the versions of libraries used , what options were used in generating that document including what files were the source of the document data , and some expression of the creation time that includes the timezone.

Get out and vote! However, most word processors provide some way of viewing and probably editing the metadata. Recall that name and affiliation are generally entered when MSWord is first installed. This section can be left empty, but here is a commonly useful string to provide:. The number is U. Moreover, language numbers are discussed in greater detail in the Language Tagging section. It also resets the font size to 12 points.

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And finally, it turns off all character-formatting features such as underlining, italic, superscript, et cetera. Finally, the last line is a construct for turning on page numbering in the form of a flush-right point number, in whatever is font number 0 in the font table. This section is optional, in the sense that you could have a document with no content such as a document template. This section covers all sorts of odds and ends about RTF.

Therefore, developers can use new commands whether new in the standard, or just for private use with the certainty that existing RTF programs will react by predictably ignoring the unknown commands—instead of crashing, complaining to the user, or interpreting the command as literal text. But what does this language-tagging actually do? To keep those distractions away from foreign words, use language tagging. Consider how this text would be interpreted by an old program and a new program:.

English, the language of the surrounding text. Other, rarer word-processor features might use language tagging. Language tagging may also be needed if you are sending text to a speech synthesizer or to a Braille printer. RTF also supports a quite different feature with a similar name: newspaper columns. When the word processor instead breaks the content into several columns, filling the first before adding text to the second, the format is newspaper columns. A layout with newspaper columns is can make pages with small print or frequent linebreaks much easier to read.

By default, there is no line between the columns. By default, the columns are separated by a distance of twips—i. Selected type: Paperback. Added to Your Shopping Cart. Out of stock. View on Wiley Online Library. This is a dummy description. Introduces the graphical capabilities of R to readers new to the software Due to its flexibility and availability, R has become the computing software of choice for statistical computing and generating graphics across various fields of research.

In addition, the book presents: Tips for establishing, saving, and printing graphs along with essential base-package plotting functions Interactive R programs for carrying out common tasks such as inputting values, moving data on a natural spline, adjusting three-dimensional graphs, and understanding simple and local linear regression Various external packages for R that help to create more complex graphics like rimage, gplots, ggplot2, tripack, rworldmap, and plotrix packages Throughout the book, concise explanations of key concepts of R graphics assist readers in carrying out the presented procedures, and any coverage of functions is clearly written out and displayed in the text as demos.

Permissions Request permission to reuse content from this site. Table of contents Preface ix Acknowledgments xiii 1. Basic graphics 1 1.