Exploration of effective heterogeneous catalyst for various application have been a popular research focus. Among them, composite catalyst has drawn considerable attention in the recent decades. In most of the chemical industry, composite catalysts are largely used to meet the requirements of catalytic performance such as high activity, high selectivity and improved stability during operation. Recently, polymer composite has received great interest for practical application because these materials offers easy recycling and recovery of catalyst, preventing loss of catalyst and easy separation of end-product.
Hence, this chapter reviews the recent work on development of polymer-based composite catalyst. Significant performance and application of polymers composite catalyst employed in various fields are discussed. The chapter also reveals the pros and cons associated with the polymer composite in catalytic applications. The interest received on hydrogels probably reflects one of the greatest challenges for the two last decades. Able to hold and release solvents and builds, these three-dimensional polymeric structures work as a network able to reversibly change in response to small physico-chemical modifications in their surroundings.
Thus, this review explores the fabrication and recent applications of hydrogels in various fields including imaging, optics, diagnostics, drug delivery systems or tissue engineering. Nowadays, the rapid growth of industrialization, urbanization, population growth, and climate change have played a role in pollution of water resources. Lack of fresh and pure water is reflected as the main risk to many countries. In recent years, water purification methods are the focus and attention of the many scientist and governmental agencies.
Nanoscale composite materials have a huge potential to purify water in numerous ways, due to their high surface area, high chemical reactivity, excellent mechanical strength, and cost-effectiveness. Nanocomposites are intelligent to eliminate bacteria, viruses, and inorganic and organic pollutants from wastewater due to precise binding action chelation, absorption, ion exchange. Nanocomposite materials are contributed an active role in water purification, such as metal nanocomposite, metal oxide nanocomposite, carbon nanocomposite, polymer nanocomposite and membranes nanocomposite.
Plastics have been used extensively and exploited its usages in various applications such as packaging materials, automotive parts, tubes, pipes, and many more. The plastics have attracted many fields for its versatility, lightweight, and durability. Plastics are being used broadly as food packaging materials which come as bottle containers, food containers, and lightweight take-away food packets.
However, as plastics are not degradable, they are causing a major environmental problem due to scarce of landfill sites. The plastics are also being washed into the sea and causing pollution in the ocean and being eaten by the fishes. Thus, there cause a need for developing biodegradable materials that have both mechanical strength and biodegradable. A lot of researchers are contributing to developing biodegradable materials that can substitute conventional polymers, however, there is still limit of mechanical strength and elongation-at-break as per need for food packaging.
In this chapter, preparations of nanocomposites are discussed thoroughly and the characterizations that are being used to study the properties of the nanocomposites are detailed in the sections below. Cellulose nanocrystals extracted from different biomass resources have a great potential as a reinforcing agent in nanocomposite materials owing to the excellent mechanical properties and environmental sustainability.
Parallel Session Four: Cellulose Nano Fibres - OCDE
The superior properties of cellulose nanocrystals in the different polymer matrix is stifled by the non-uniform dispersion through the polymer matrix. The main approaches for the production of cellulose nanocrystals materials are improving the dispersion quality of cellulose nanocrystals in the polymer matrix with different hydrophilicities.
The application of different chemical-oriented surface modification methods has been extensively reported. However, still, the need for developing new manufacturing process capable of scaling up has motivated the academia to find out innovative mechanical techniques. In this chapter, the discussion is focused on the advances of the emerging ideas about nanocellulose materials manufacturing process with a main focus on the mechanical properties of the final product.
The performance properties of sustainable polymer matrix can be significantly improved by the incorporation of nanofillers NFs having a high aspect ratio and high active surface area. This chapter comprehensively emphasizes the processing of sustainable polymer nanocomposites PNCs containing NFs for potential industrial applications.
Different fabrication techniques of sustainable PNCs such as intercalation method, sol-gel and direct dispersion method have been discussed briefly. The impact of these processing techniques on the properties of PNCs and their wide range of industrial applications like mechanical, electronic and biological are highlighted in this chapter. Furthermore, an overview is given on different types of NFs used for the preparation of sustainable PNCs for industrial application. Of late, the paper has attracted the significant attention of researchers as a substrate for sensing devices.
Paper is a fibrous network of cellulose, a ubiquitous biopolymer, which is fast emerging as a sustainable raw material and replacing the non-renewable ones. Paper possesses many striking features such as hydrophilicity and low-cost, which make it an excellent choice for sensing platforms. Paper-based sensing devices are flexible, foldable, portable, economical, user-friendly and disposable.
Recently, numerous works have reported the use of paper substrates for sensor fabrication in the fields of biomedical health care, environmental analysis, food and water quality, and forensics. The current chapter aims to present a concise overview of the recent developments in the area of paper-based sensing, particularly in the ongoing decade.
It briefly discusses the sensing approach for the detection of various analytes and focuses on their applications in various sectors. The discharge of wastewater containing dyes causes severe problems worldwide, which must be properly treated before entering the environment. Adsorption is believed to be one of the favourable techniques to remove dyes because of its environmental and economic sustainability.
The adsorption performance of adsorbents was discussed in correlation with a number of factors, such as the properties of dyes, surface chemistry or structures of adsorbents, as well as operation conditions, e. In addition, the regeneration and reusability of developed adsorbents were covered. Integration of hybrid nanocomposite materials in a fuel cell FC provides excellent improved properties such as proton conductivity, membrane stability.
Similarly, the synergetic effect of materials used in nanocomposite membranes gives better water retention property, suppression of fuel crossover with reduced cost of operation. Currently available composite materials comprising of various metals, metal oxides, carbon materials and polymers display their superior properties in fuel cell applications. However, composite membranes have drawbacks such as CO poisoning, poor water retention capacity, and fuel crossover due to the less chemical and thermal stabilities.
Recently, a tremendous advancement in various nanocomposite membranes led to superior properties in terms of high membrane stability, proton conductivity, suppression of fuel crossover, less CO poisoning. In this chapter, the recent developments in FC nanocomposite technology are systematically summarized. Furthermore, the advantages of the insertion of hybrid, clean, cheap and new variety of nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, chitosan and organic fillers in FC are neatly explained.
The use of nanofillers allows the development of nanocomposites with improved properties and novel applications. The technological goal is possible due to the new compounding method that allows a particle dispersion in the nanometer scale increasing the specific surface area. They integrate the benefits of the inorganic materials e. Recently, polymer-Si nanocomposites have received considerable attention and have been applied in many different applications.
Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells PEMFCs have appeared as an environmentally friendly device to meet the energy demands of the recent years. The incorporation of fillers, particularly nano-sized Si particulates, to the polymeric matrix was employed to partially resolve the problems. Thus, this account will provide a broad summary of the methods and techniques employed for the nanocomposites preparation as well as a short explanation about their properties, characterizations, and applications.
In-depth explanations of particular subjects can be found in related references. Polymer-based materials are an important and promising area of research exhibiting strong developments Sadeghi et al. They play a prominent role in the modern civilization and find application in different industries related to electrical and electronic equipment, chemicals, automotive, spacecraft, energy storage in batteries and supercapacitors and medical to cite a few. Greater awareness towards the environmental issues such as global warming, emission of toxic pollutants and contaminants in the sea, air and on land, destruction of biodiversity and the needs to meet the sustainable development goals, has stimulated interest in the development of recyclable and eco-friendly single polymer composites.
These are composite materials with mechanical properties comparable to the heterogeneous composites, fully recyclable and therefore providing economic and environmental advantages. An increasing trend is the use of natural fiber reinforced composites as low-cost composites with low density and high specific properties, non-abrasive and biodegradable. The major challenge in the fabrication of single polymer composites is the small melting temperature difference between the fiber and the matrix, and in the case of natural fibers, the incompatibility of the fibers with the matrix, and the poor resistance to moisture.
This review article gives an overview of the developments in single polymer composites relating to the polymer sciences, materials selection, fabrication methods and the different types of recyclable and eco-friendly single polymer composites. The development of sustainable products based on eco-composites using natural resources, agro-wastes or cellulosic fibers are among effective strategies for waste recycling, environmental remediation, and conversion into value-added products.
Composite materials based on polymer have increasingly replaced the metals and ceramics-based composite due to the low cost and ease of processability, with wide-ranging tunable properties and amenability to changes for specific applications, through the use of additives in the form of fillers, lamina, fibers, flakes, and particles.
Nanofillers incorporated within the matrix of nanocomposites dramatically alter the chemical, physical and mechanical properties. These are dependant upon factors such as the processing techniques, the interaction between the nanofillers and the matrix, and the distribution and dispersion of the nano-fillers. In this review article, the processing aspects of the composite materials based on cellulose, chitosan, and magnetic nanocomposites are discussed. The applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, biosensor, electrically conductive polymer and insulators, and the green catalysis and environmental remediation are highlighted.
Magnetic separation, one of the potential methods for the purification of toxic pollutant contaminated water, has been found to be an alternative technique for the removal of water pollutants that effectively compares with the conventional methods of treatment. Among the synthetic magnetic adsorbents, magnetic graphene oxide based nanocomposites MGOs have been widely used in the removal of metal pollutants and dyes from aqueous solution, and are currently attracting much attention.
This chapter reviews the status and approaches of the properties of graphene and magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposites, in view of their utilization for the adsorption removal of pollutants heavy metals, radioactive elements, organic dyes, and other pollutants for sustainable water purification. It also reviews the primary characterization instruments required for the evaluation of structural, chemical and physical functionalities of synthesized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposites. It first discusses pollutants and their toxic effects, and the necessity of preparation of MGOs, and then discusses in brief MGOs preparation strategies, characterizations, and applications for sustainable water purification.
Recently, significant advancement has achieved in the field of bone tissue engineering for the preparation of artificial bone in order to treat defects or bone loss. Biomaterials mainly used to construct devices that are associated with the biological system to co-exist for long-lasting use with limited chance of failures. Most well-known biomaterials used for bone implants include metals, ceramics, and polymers. At present carbon nanomaterials, particularly carbon nanotubes are promising biomaterials for artificial bone due to their remarkable mechanical, electrical and thermal strength.
However, in biomedical applications, carbon nanotubes are restricted to use alone due to issues like toxicity, abacas sheets formation and aggregation. Functionalization techniques help to avoid such issues. Functionalization techniques are categorized into covalent and non-covalent approaches. Covalent approach primarily focuses on tailoring the sidewalls to proceed with the modification, whereas non-covalent are constrained to alter the structure. The purpose of this chapter is to use functionalized carbon nanomaterial, mainly CNTs as filler material for artificial bone replacement. Therefore, this chapter reviewed the bones structure and mechanics, artificial bone history, carbon nanotubes synthesis and functionalization techniques.
About this book
This chapter introduces and discusses the nanocomposite hydrogels, based on inorganic particles, including inorganic ceramics clays , and nanofillers of carbon, silicon, metal, and metal oxide. Various nanoparticle preparation methods will be presented in brief. Depending on the inorganic particle types, assorted preparation methods for nanocomposite hydrogels, and their corresponding characterization methods will be assessed. Inorganic particles not only improve the mechanical strength of these soft materials gels but also confer specific properties into the gel networks; stimuli-responsive hydrogels are good examples.
Cellulose Based Composites: New Green Nanomaterials
Nanocomposite hydrogels have been engineered to be used in various applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, water treatment, conductive materials, optoelectronic, and supercapacitors. Furthermore, stimuli-responsiveness feature, the ability of bio-fabrication, and the capability of 3D printing introduce them as potential candidates for the fabrication of smart materials with complicated structures.
The role of new microstructures, such as honeycomb, Zn-cellulose complex, cellulose-cellulose network etc. Nanocomposites containing nanofillers are remarkable products of nanotechnology. The application of nanomaterials as fillers in composites can confer extraordinary properties and, therefore, are considered promising for a range of applications. In this chapter, a detailed description of nanocomposite and nanofiller material is discussed. In addition, a brief summary of the dielectric properties and electrical conductivity of nanocomposite materials is provided. It is concluded that sustainable nanocomposite materials using nanofiller may possess high electrical conductivity and dielectric properties.
Sustainable thermoplastic nanocomposites are of great importance because they possess the potential to resolve concerns on the emission of greenhouse gases, depletion of fossil fuels and pollution. The thermal characteristics of polymers and nanocomposites play a significant role in determining the suitable application of these materials. This review provides an overview of the thermal properties of sustainable thermoplastic nanocomposites incorporated with various nanofillers. Further, the recycling perspectives of various polymers have been discussed. The thermal properties are essential characteristics to understand the behaviour of the raw material and final product.
The performance and properties of the nanocomposite are greatly dependent on the polymer matrix, polymer dispersion in composite, properties and aspect ratio of fiber, the interface of fiber and matrix, and process parameters.
Nanocomposites are classified into two classes one is non-polymer based nanocomposite and another is polymer-based nanocomposites. Nowadays polymer-based nanocomposites are involved everywhere and especially in the membrane science, it is playing a key role. Recent decade researchers getting tremendous output using membrane technology.
- Cellulose Fibers: Bio- and Nano-Polymer Composites;
- Sustainable Polymer Composites and Nanocomposites?
- Genetic Takeover - And the Mineral Origins of Life!
Earlier applying the membrane technology in several fields it was a challenge for the researchers but nowadays researcher are using it in different research fields. There are tremendous work was done using nanocomposite membrane for applications like water desalination, wastewater treatment, gas separation, water vapours removal from flue gas, enantiomer separation, etc. Thin film nanocomposite membrane technology has deliberated as one of the most doable technology for above-mentioned application fields.
Nanoparticles NPs incorporated in a polymer matrix or in the thin composite layer to prepare nanocomposite membrane have become promising membrane materials owing their enhance properties such as high surface area, surface mobility, superior optical and magnetic properties. This book chapter discusses the recent development in nanocomposite membrane technology considering several applications.
The results showed that the nanocomposite membranes possess a high flux along with superior selectivity in all above-mentioned field to compare with composite membranes. Key face in nanocomposites membrane technology for the future research perspectives is also discussed in this book chapter. Natural fibres offer several advantages over synthetic fibres, which make them excellent candidates in various applications.
Besides having various advantages they lack in issues like resin compatibility and water absorption. Researches on plant fibers for composite applications are increasing due to the demand of materials from renewable sources, which do not consume fossil fuels during manufacture, thus avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. An interdisciplinary approach is required to cover all aspects of plant fiber research, but the actual literature shows many gaps in this sense, where many works are limited in one field of study and may present unclear conclusions.
To solve this problem, we did a systematic approach in the literature to provide a review of key aspects of plant fibers, regarding biology, chemistry, and engineering. Considering that the solid wood, being a heterogeneous and anisotropic product, presents several disadvantages such as unsatisfactory mechanical properties for certain uses and limitations of wood due to dimensions of wood pieces, reconstituted wood products have been developed by gluing of veener, boards, lignocellulosic fibers, etc. It should be noted that changes in adhesion to wood are desirable in terms of performance improvement and adhesive economy.
Within the constant search for better performance of adhesives, the use of nanocelluloses appears as a viable option. Further, identification of reinforcement of adhesives with nanocellulose is being considered as an opportunity among the several opportunities offered by nanotechnology for the forest products industry.
Use of nanocelluloses as reinforcements in adhesives for the production of reconstituted wood panels has several benefits such as possibility of altering the properties of adhesives, gain in mechanical and physical properties of panels and reduction in formaldehyde emissions by panels using synthetic adhesives. Accordingly, this chapter discusses the main types of reconstituted wood panels, types and characteristics of the adhesives employed, aspects that influence the bonding and use of additives in the glue mixture.
Besides, it also addresses the use of nanocellulose and its effects on the properties of reconstituted wood panels. Despite all the advantages emntioned above, the Chapter ends with the conclusion that there are still some problems to be looked into suggesting need for more research either in the application of nanocellulose and its modification in different types of resin, as well as application technologies appropriate to the new conditions of the adhesives.
In recent times, nanotechnology, which has been one of the main novelties to be developed in the 21st century, has been applied to many sectors, particularly to various industrial sectors including forest-based industry. An output of this is the development of nanomaterials of which nanocelluloses have been studied as high technology biopolymers for application in various materials through the development of films and as reinforcement in papers.
With this background, the main objective of this Chapter is to present the use of nanocellulose in the paper making. Accordingly, the Chapter presents characteristics of the most used wood in the world for pulp and paper production, main methods of obtaining cellulose in nature, process of bleaching of pulp, paper making, processes to obtain different types of nanocellulose microfibrillar nanofiber and cellulose nanocrystals , applications of nanocellulose in the paper making through coating and films as well as by nanocellulose-reinforced pulp and the resulting effects of the use of nanocellulose in paper production.
These include increased tensile and burst strengths, weight loss, improved barrier properties for oils, oxygen and moisture, better printing surface, etc. In the end, marketing aspects, possible future opportunities and finally concluding remarks are given. These briefly mention the use of nanocelluloses in papermaking presenting interesting possibilities, which offer improvements in cost-benefit, energy efficiency and biocompatibility, in addition to generating new products with uses are not available today. Silver-containing nanocomposites have recently attracted the immense attention of researchers from different fields because of the dual benefits from silver nanoparticle and matrix elements.
There are four types of synthetic methods or silver nanoparticles and three types of composite systems currently used for their preparations, which are briefly described in this chapter. Silver nanoparticles are widely used for biomedical applications due to their antibacterial and antiviral properties. In addition, silver nanocomposites are extensively used in other fields including, food industries, textile industries, electronic industries etc. Silver nanoparticles embedded polymer matrix composites are promising candidates for biomaterials, photovoltaic materials, and catalysts.
This chapter describes different methods employed for synthesis of silver nanoparticle-containing nanocomposites and their potential applications. In the last few years, nanoparticles and nanocomposites have emerged as one of the promising candidates to scientists from various fields because of their immense potential to revolutionize science and technology. The nanoscale particles and composites are synthesized with a broad range of metals like gold, silver, iron, metal oxides and semiconductors. They are effective for water filtration, as a therapeutic agent, a very important agent for targeted drug delivery and also of immense importance in biomedical applications like Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI.
The nanoscale particles have a wide range and have the potential to be used for the betterment of biomedical research, human health, and environment. Though these nanoscale materials are synthesized widely all over the world with various metals, carbon and graphene and other elements for research purposes and to understand their applications, the biological issues of toxicity associated with these materials and its impact on human health and environment are grossly unexplored.
Detailed understanding of the factors regulating toxicity is lacking. A complete toxicological profile of these nanocomposites will ensure effective translation for a market available drug through clinical trial and other nano-based products. This chapter deals with the synthesis of nanocomposites, their applications and toxicological evaluation of the same in terms of human application.
Polyurethane PUs is gaining immense interest as a speciality polymer for various high-end applications. Vegetable oil has gained momentous attention as a valuable renewable precursor and a potential alternative to the current petro-based polyol for the synthesis of PUs.
The concept of reinforcing nanofiller into vegetable oil-based PU matrix has gained huge research interest for the development of bio-based PU nanocomposites with tailor-made properties. The addition of nanofiller into bio-based PU nanocomposites has led to the improvement of thermal, mechanical, optical and physicochemical properties. This chapter will deal with the detailed insight regarding the synthesis, characterization of bio-based PUs nanocomposites from various vegetable oil incorporated with different nanofillers.
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