Beyond Death (Islamic History and Civilization)

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Hellenistic Civilization. Hellenistic civilization. The Aegean Civilization History of Civilization. Beyond Panini Beyond Series. Beyond Desserts Beyond Series. Beyond Pasta Beyond Series. Beyond Smoothies Beyond Series. The Civilization of Illiteracy. Civilization and Its Discontents. Medieval Western Civilization. The Civilization Of Illiteracy. Three main Muslim political powers emerged.


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The Aceh Sultanate was the most important, controlling much of the area between Southeast Asia and India from its centre in northern Sumatra. The Sultanate also attracted Sufi poets. The Sultanate of Demak on Java was the third power, where the emerging Muslim forces defeated the local Majapahit kingdom in the early 16th century. Portuguese forces captured Malacca in under naval general Afonso de Albuquerque. The Sultanate's territory, although vastly diminished, remains intact to this day as the modern state of Brunei Darussalam. These imperial powers were made possible by the discovery and exploitation of gunpowder and more efficient administration.

The Seljuq Turks declined in the second half of the 13th century, after the Mongol invasion. Osman I afterwards led it in a series of battles with the Byzantine Empire. The Ottomans were established in the Balkans and Anatolia by the time Bayezid I ascended to power in the same year, now at the helm of a growing empire. This episode was characterized by the division of the Ottoman territory amongst Bayezid I's sons, who submitted to Timurid authority.


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  6. When a number of Ottoman territories regained independent status, ruin for the Empire loomed. However, the empire recovered, as the youngest son of Bayezid I, Mehmed I , waged offensive campaigns against his ruling brothers, thereby reuniting Asia Minor and declaring himself sultan in Around this time the Ottoman naval fleet developed, such that they were able to challenge Venice , a naval power.

    They also attempted to reconquer the Balkans. A factor in this siege was the use of muskets and large cannons introduced by the Ottomans. The Byzantine fortress succumbed in , after 54 days of siege. Without its capital the Byzantine Empire disintegrated. In the early 16th century, the Shi'ite Safavid dynasty assumed control in Persia under the leadership of Shah Ismail I , defeating the ruling Turcoman federation Aq Qoyunlu also called the "White Sheep Turkomans" in The Ottoman sultan Selim I sought to repel Safavid expansion, challenging and defeating them at the Battle of Chaldiran in Selim I also deposed the ruling Mamluks in Egypt, absorbing their territories in Suleiman I also known as Suleiman the Magnificent , Selim I's successor, took advantage of the diversion of Safavid focus to the Uzbeks on the eastern frontier and recaptured Baghdad, which had fallen under Safavid control.

    Despite this, Safavid power remained substantial, rivalling the Ottomans. While Suleiman I's rule — is often identified as the apex of Ottoman power, the empire continued to remain powerful and influential until a relative fall in its military strength in the second half of the eighteenth century.

    The Safavid dynasty rose to power in Tabriz in and later conquered the rest of Iran. They were of mixed ancestry, originally Kurdish , [] but during their rule intermarried with Turkomans , [] Georgians , [] Circassians , [] [] and Pontic Greeks. This resulted in the Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam.

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    Zaydis , the largest group amongst the Shia before the Safavid Dynasty were also forced to convert to the Twelver Shia. The Zaydis at that time used the Hanafi Fiqh, as did most Sunnis and there were good relations between them. Abu Hanifah and Zayd ibn Ali were also very good friends.

    The Safavids dynasty from Azarbaijan ruled from to , and which established Twelver Shi'a Islam as the region's official religion and united its provinces under a single sovereignty, thereby reigniting the Persian identity. Their origins go back to Firuz Shah Zarrinkolah , a local dignitary from the north. During their rule, the Safavids recognized Twelver Shi'a Islam as the State religion, thus giving the region a separate identity from its Sunni neighbours. In , Tahmasp I acceded to the throne, initiating a revival of the arts. Carpetmaking became a major industry. The tradition of Persian miniature painting in manuscripts reached its peak, until Tahmasp turned to strict religious observance in middle age, prohibiting the consumption of alcohol and hashish and removing casinos , taverns and brothels.

    Tahmasp's nephew Ibrahim Mirza continued to patronize a last flowering of the arts until he was murdered, after which many artists were recruited by the Mughal dynasty. Both shrines received jewelry, fine manuscripts and Chinese porcelains. Abbas moved the capital to Isfahan , revived old ports, and established thriving trade with Europeans. Amongst Abbas's most visible cultural achievements was the construction of Naqsh-e Jahan Square "Design of the World".

    The Safavid Dynasty was toppled in by the Hotaki dynasty , which ended their forceful conversion of Sunni areas to Shiaism. The Mughal Empire at its greatest extent, in ca. Red Fort was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly years, until Mughal Empire was a power that comprised almost all of South Asia , founded in It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty , with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia , claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan through his son Chagatai Khan and Timur , [] [] [] and with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; [] [] the first two Mughal emperors had both parents of Central Asian ancestry, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry.

    The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi , the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate , in the First Battle of Panipat During the reign of Humayun , the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri , who re-established the Grand Trunk Road across the northern Indian subcontinent, initiated the rupee currency system and developed much of the foundations of the effective administration of Mughal rule. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began in , with the ascension of Akbar to the throne.

    Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. After the death of Aurangzeb , which marks the end of Medieval India and beginning of the European colonialism in India, internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal , the Nawab of Awadh , the Nizam of Hyderabad , the major economic and military power known as Kingdom of Mysore ruled by Tipu Sultan and other small states.

    In , the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah , the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, and Delhi was sacked and looted , drastically accelerating their decline. By the midth century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. The Rocket artillery and the world's first iron-cased rockets, the Mysorean rockets , were used during the war and the Jihad based Fathul Mujahidin was compiled.

    During the following century Mughal power had become severely limited, and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II , had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason, imprisoned, and exiled to Rangoon. Ibrahim Muteferrika , Rational basis for the Politics of Nations [].

    The modern age brought technological and organizational changes to Europe while the Islamic region continued the patterns of earlier centuries. The European powers, and especially Britain and France , globalized economically and colonized much of the region. By the end of the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire had declined. He transformed Turkish culture to reflect European laws, adopted Arabic numerals , the Latin script , separated the religious establishment from the state, and emancipated woman—even giving them the right to vote in parallel with women's suffrage in the west.

    Following World War I, the vast majority of former Ottoman territory outside of Asia Minor was handed over to the victorious European powers as protectorates. During the war the Allies had promised the subject peoples independence in exchange for their assistance fighting the Turkish powers. To their dismay, they found that this system of "protectorates" was a smoke-screen for their continued subjugation by the British and the French.

    The struggles for independence from their Turkish overlords and the cooperation of partisan forces with the British were romanticized in the stories of British secret intelligence agent T. Lawrence —later known as "Lawrence of Arabia. Many Muslim countries sought to adopt European political organization and nationalism began to emerge in the Muslim world.

    Countries like Egypt, Syria and Turkey organized their governments and sought to develop national pride among their citizens. Other places, like Iraq, were not as successful due to a lack of unity and an inability to resolve age-old prejudices between Muslim sects and against non-Muslims. Some Muslim countries, such as Turkey and Egypt, sought to separate Islam from the secular government. In other cases, such as Saudi Arabia, the government brought out religious expression in the re-emergence of the puritanical form of Sunni Islam known to its detractors as Wahabism , which found its way into the Saudi royal family.

    The Arab—Israeli conflict spans about a century of political tensions and open hostilities. It involves the establishment of the modern State of Israel as a Jewish nation state , the consequent displacement of the Palestinian people and Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries , as well as the adverse relationship between the Arab states and the State of Israel see related Israeli—Palestinian conflict.

    Despite at first involving only the Arab states bordering Israel, animosity has also developed between Israel and other predominantly Muslim states. The Arab countries closed the Suez canal and it was followed in May by the closure of the "tapline" from Saudi Arabia through Syria to Lebanon. These developments had the effect of increasing the importance of petroleum in Libya , which is a short and canal-free shipping distance from Europe. In , Occidental Petroleum broke with other oil companies and accepted the Arab demands for price increases.

    OPEC had been emboldened by the success of Sadat's campaigns and the war strengthened their unity. In response to the emergency resupply effort by the West that enabled Israel to put up a resistance against the Egyptian and Syrian forces, the Arab world imposed the oil embargo against the United States and Western Europe. Faisal agreed that Saudi Arabia would use some of its oil wealth to finance the "front-line states", those that bordered Israel, in their struggle.

    The centrality of petroleum, the Arab—Israeli conflict and political and economic instability and uncertainty remain constant features of the politics of the region. Many countries, individuals and non-governmental organizations elsewhere in the world feel involved in this conflict for reasons such as cultural and religious ties with Islam, Arab culture , Christianity , Judaism , Jewish culture , or for ideological, human rights , or strategic reasons.

    Although some consider the Arab—Israeli conflict a part of or a precursor to a wider clash of civilizations between the Western World and the Muslim world , [] [] others oppose this view. In the Iranian Revolution transformed Iran from a constitutional monarchy to a populist theocratic Islamic republic under the rule of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini , a Shi'i Muslim cleric and marja. Following the Revolution, and a new constitution was approved and a referendum established the government, electing Ruhollah Khomeini as Supreme Leader.

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    During the following two years, liberals, leftists, and Islamic groups fought each other, and the Islamics captured power. The development of the two opposite fringes, the Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam the Twelver Shia version and its reinforcement by the Iranian Revolution and the Salafi in Saudi Arabia, coupled with the Iran—Saudi Arabia relations resulted in these governments using sectarian conflict to enhance their political interests.

    Certain Iranian exiles also helped convince Saddam that if he invaded, the fledgling Islamic republic would quickly collapse. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the history of Islam as a culture and polity. For a history of the Islamic faith, see Islamic schools and branches. Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage. Texts and sciences. Culture and society.

    Related topics. Main article: Timeline of Muslim history. Main article: Historiography of early Islam. See also: Early social changes under Islam. Main article: Rashidun Caliphate. Main article: Umayyad Caliphate. Main article: Islamic Golden Age. Main article: Abbasid Caliphate. Four constructions of Islamite law. Al-Aqsa Mosque.

    Main article: Fatimid Caliphate. Main article: Crusades. Main article: Ayyubid dynasty. Main article: Mongol invasions and conquests. Main article: Mamluk Sultanate Cairo. Main article: Bahri dynasty. Main article: Burji dynasty. See also: Reconquista and Timeline of the Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula. Main article: Almoravid dynasty.

    Main article: Almohad dynasty. Main article: Greater Maghreb. Main articles: Islam in Ethiopia and Islam in Somalia. Further information: History of Islam in China. See also: The spread of Islam in Indonesia to Main article: Early modern history. Main article: Ottoman Empire. Main article: Safavid Empire.

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    Main article: Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. Main article: Arab—Israeli conflict. Modern Islamic world. Islam and the Integration of Society. Psychology Press. Islam: The Straight Path 3rd ed. Oxford University Press. Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. Welch, Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed.

    Arabia and Ethiopia. Zeitlin 19 March The Historical Muhammad. A History of the Arab Peoples. Harvard University Press. Montgomery Watt Muhammad At Medina. Oxford At The Clarendon Press. Tafsir al-Kabir, Volume Mishkat al-Masabih. Habib al-Siyar, Volume 1, Part 3. Medina's victories led allied tribes to attack the non-aligned to compensate for their own losses. The pressure drove tribes [ The Bakr tribe, which had defeated a Persian detachment in , joined forces with the Muslims and led them on a raid in southern Iraq [ Abu Bakr encouraged these movements [ Montgomery Watt, Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed.

    Hoyland , p. Men Around the Messenger. The Other Press.


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    The Living Thoughts of the Prophet Muhammad. Administrative Development: An Islamic Perspective. Ottoman History: Misperceptions and Truths. IUR Press. Gardner Arab Socialism. Brill Archive. Serjeant Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. Islamic Quarterly. Cambridge University Press. European Naval and Maritime History, — Indiana University Press. History of the Jihad: Islam Versus Civilization. Gregory 26 August A History of Byzantium. Lambton; Bernard Lewis The Cambridge History of Islam:.

    The Early Caliphate. Al-Zubaidi p. Penguin, Muhammad and the Islamic tradition. New York: Harper Brothers. Esposito p. Kennedy - p. Rahman pp. Meri p. State University of New York Press. The caliph accepted this and confirmed Muhammad ibn Yazid as governor of Ifriqiyah. Courier Dover Publications. Islam: Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. University of Calagary. Archived from the original on 10 April Retrieved 18 April Najjar Spring, Chambers, Encyclopedia of World Religions. Mountainous regions of Iran were brought under a tighter grip of the central Abbasid government, as were areas of Turkestan.

    There were disturbances in Iraq during the first several years of Al-Ma'mun's reign. Egypt continued to be unquiet. Sindh was rebellious, but Ghassan ibn Abbad subdued it. An ongoing problem for Al-Ma'mun was the uprising headed by Babak Khorramdin. In Babak routed a Caliphate army, killing its commander Muhammad ibn Humayd. Al-Ma'mun introduced the Mihna with the intention to centralize religious power in the caliphal institution and test the loyalty of his subjects.

    The Mihna had to be undergone by elites, scholars, judges and other government officials, and consisted of a series of questions relating to theology and faith. The central question was about the state of the creation of the Qur'an: if the person interrogated stated he believed the Qur'an to be created, he was free to leave and continue his profession. Joel L. Frye Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. Greenwood Publishing Group. Modern historians have suspected that Mas'ud instigated the murder although the two most important historians of the period Ibn al-Athir and Ibn al-Jawzi did not speculate on this matter.

    The Political Language of Islam. University of Chicago Press. Lambton A Concise History of the Middle East. El-Gamal Islamic Finance: Law, Economics, and Practice. Tucker; Priscilla Roberts Rand Corporation. Saudi Aramco World : 24, 26— Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 9 August An introduction to Islam for Jews. Religion and politics: Islam and Muslim civilization. Farnham, England: Ashgate Pub. The Cambridge Medieval History.

    Archived from the original on 21 May Retrieved 3 November The Crusades Through Arab Eyes. Al Saqi Books. The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Saudi Aramco World. Ezzati, p. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. While Timur's capital, Samarqand, became a cosmopolitan imperial city that flourished as never before, Iran and Iraq suffered devastation at a greater degree than that caused by the Mongols. Starr, S. Frederick HarperCollins Publishers India. Timur's ceaseless conquests were accompanied by a level of brutality matched only by Chinggis Khan himself.

    At Isfahan his troops dispatched some 70, defenders, while at Delhi his soldiers are reported to have systematically killed , Indians. The Muhammadan Period; by Sir H. The Mughal Empire. New Edition. Brill, Leiden. The course of empire: The Arabs and their successors. Islamic and Christian Spain in the early Middle Ages. The new Cambridge medieval history. A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. University of Pennsylvania Press. Abd al-Rahman's progeny would, however, take up the title of caliph. National Geographic Books, Lambton; Bernard Lewis 21 April Oxford: Oneworld Publications.

    Volume 1. Granada: Francisco Ventura y Sabatel. Westminster: Archibald Constable and Company.

    Muslim Heritage. Historic Cities of the Islamic World. Leiden: Brill.

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    Islam and Politics in East Aftrica. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Bahrain tribune. Archived from the original on 6 July The Mogul emperors of Hindustan, A. Scribner's Sons. Hadarat al Arab. Translation of La Civilisation-des Arabes. API Sejarah. The Legacy of Islam. Oxford University Press, New York, p.

    Dictionary of wars. New York: Facts on File. Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Faroqhi, Suraiya But recently, more note has been taken of the fact that the Ottoman Empire was still a formidable military and political power throughout the seventeenth century, and that noticeable though limited economic recovery followed the crisis of the years around ; after the crisis of the —99 war, there followed a longer and more decisive economic upswing.

    Major evidence of decline was not visible before the second half of the eighteenth century. Ebn Bazzaz. The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. Encyclopaedia Iranica Vol. VIII, Fasc. IB Tauris. The name "Iran" disappeared from official records of the Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids, Saljuqs and their successor. But one unofficially used the name Iran, Eranshahr, and similar national designations, particularly Mamalek-e Iran or "Iranian lands", which exactly translated the old Avestan term Ariyanam Daihunam.

    The term Islamicate refers to the social and cultural complex that is historically associated with Islam and the Muslims, including the function and participation of non-Islamic and non-Muslim individuals and groups within that complex. The potential for Muslim empire building was established with the rise of the earliest civilizations in western Asia. It was facilitated by the expansion of trade from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean and by the political changes thus effected.

    The Muslims were heirs to the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians, Hebrews, even the Greeks and Indians; the societies they created bridged time and space, from ancient to modern and from east to west. The factors that surrounded and directed their accomplishment had begun to coalesce long before, with the emergence of agrarian-based citied societies in western Asia in the 4th millennium bce. The rise of complex agrarian-based societies, such as Sumer , out of a subsistence agricultural and pastoralist environment , involved the founding of cities, the extension of citied power over surrounding villages, and the interaction of both with pastoralists.

    This type of social organization offered new possibilities. Agricultural production and intercity trading, particularly in luxury goods, increased. Some individuals were able to take advantage of the manual labour of others to amass enough wealth to patronize a wide range of arts and crafts; of these, a few were able to establish territorial monarchies and foster religious institutions with wider appeal. Gradually the familiar troika of court, temple, and market emerged. The new ruling groups cultivated skills for administering and integrating non-kin-related groups.

    They benefited from the increased use of writing and, in many cases, from the adoption of a single writing system, such as the cuneiform , for administrative use. New institutions, such as coinage, territorial deities, royal priesthoods, and standing armies, further enhanced their power. In such town-and-country complexes the pace of change quickened enough so that a well-placed individual might see the effects of his actions in his own lifetime and be stimulated to self-criticism and moral reflection of an unprecedented sort.

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