Beating the Fascists?: The German Communists and Political Violence 1929-1933

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The legislation was accompanied by a propaganda blitz that led to public support for the measure. In March , the Enabling Act, an amendment to the Weimar Constitution, passed in the Reichstag by a vote of to This amendment allowed Hitler and his cabinet to pass laws—even laws that violated the constitution—without the consent of the president or the Reichstag.

As the bill required a two-thirds majority to pass, the Nazis used the provisions of the Reichstag Fire Decree to keep several social democratic deputies from attending; the Communists had already been banned.

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On May 10, the government seized the assets of the social democrats; they were banned in June. The remaining political parties were dissolved, and on July 14, , Germany became a defacto one-party state when the founding of new parties was made illegal. Further elections in November , , and were entirely Nazi-controlled and saw only the Nazis and a small number of independents elected.

The regional state parliaments and the Reichsrat federal upper house were abolished in January Hitler knew that reviving the economy was vital.

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Successful efforts were made to get middle-class women involved in social work assisting large families. It combined indirect incentives, such as tax reductions, with direct public investment in waterways, railroads, and highways. It was followed by similar initiatives resulting in great expansion of the German construction industry.

Between and , employment in construction rose from , to over 2 million. In , using deficit spending, public works projects were undertaken. A total of 1. Average wages both per hour and per week began to rise. All social programs in Nazi Germany excluded German Jews.

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For example, government-run health care insurance plans were available, but Jews were denied coverage starting in That same year, Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat government-insured patients. In , Jewish doctors were forbidden to treat non-Jewish patients, and in , their right to practice medicine was removed entirely. Nuremberg, November 9, National Archives Gift Collection.

Japan declared war on Germany on August 23, , and immediately sought to expand its sphere of influence in China and the Pacific. It succeeded to some extent, taking over a number of German colonial holdings in the region. The clause was rejected by several Western countries and was not forwarded for larger discussion at the full meeting of the conference. All these events released a surge of Japanese nationalism and resulted in the end of collaboration diplomacy, which supported peaceful economic expansion.

The implementation of a military dictatorship and territorial expansionism were considered the best ways to protect the Yamato-damashii, or what Japanese saw as their spiritual and cultural values. In the s, Japan witnessed a development of democratic trends, including the introduction of universal male suffrage in The act curtailed individual freedom in Japan and outlawed groups that sought to alter the system of government or abolish private ownership.

Understand Socialism, Communism, Fascism, & Nazism in 15 Minutes (Part I)

Historians consider these developments to be critical to the end of democratic changes in Japan. In response to post-World War I disarmament efforts, a movement opposing the idea of limiting the size of Japanese military grew within the junior officer corps. Totalitarianism, militarism, and expansionism were to become the rule, with fewer voices able to speak against it. On the other hand, traditionalist Navy militarists defended the emperor and a constitutional monarchy with a significant religious aspect.

In the s and s, Japan needed to import raw materials such as iron, rubber, and oil to maintain strong economic growth. Most of these resources came from the United States. As a result, Japan set its sights on East Asia, specifically Manchuria with its many resources. With little resistance, Japan invaded and conquered Manchuria in Jehol, a Chinese territory bordering Manchuria, was taken in In , Japan also created a Mongolian puppet state in Inner Mongolia named Mengjiang, which was also predominantly Chinese as a result of recent Han immigration to the area.

The invasion started what would become known as the Second Sino-Japanese War, which after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in would merge into the greater conflict of World War II as a major front of what is broadly known as the Pacific War.


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It accounted for the majority of civilian and military casualties in the Pacific War, with anywhere between 10 and 25 million Chinese civilians and over 4 million Chinese and Japanese military personnel dying from war-related violence, famine, and other causes. The pact also called for mutual protection—if any one of the member powers was attacked by a country not already at war excluding the Soviet Union and for technological and economic cooperation between the signatories.

The imperial ambitions of Japan and particularly the Invasion of Manchuria dramatically revealed the helplessness and ineffectiveness of the League of Nations. The league was unable to do anything in light of the events. Japan withdrew from the organization in In September , Germany, Italy, and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact, agreeing to provide military and economic support to each other.

CFA: US Holocaust Memorial Museum - 2018 Jack & Anita Hess Faculty Seminar

It was a defensive military alliance that was eventually joined by Hungary November 20, , Romania November 23, , Bulgaria March 1, and Yugoslavia March 25, , as well as by the German client state of Slovakia November 24, The resulting Italo-German client state of Croatia joined the pact on June 15, Many contemporary world leaders and later historians believed that the Tripartite Pact was directed primarily at the United States, at the time reluctant to enter the global war.

The resulting alliance of three global powers aimed to further discourage the United States from direct military involvement. Its practical effects were limited, since the Italo-German and Japanese operational theaters were on opposite sides of the world and the high contracting powers had disparate strategic interests.

Some technical cooperation was carried out, and the Japanese declaration of war on the United States propelled, although it did not require, a similar declaration of war from all the other signatories of the Tripartite Pact. In the years leading to the Tripartite Pact, Germany, Italy, and Japan all turned into totalitarian regimes with imperial ambitions. The invasion and occupation of Denmark and Norway followed.

In May of , Germany moved forward and occupied Luxembourg, followed, within days, by the Netherlands and Belgium. On June 22, France signed an armistice agreement with Germany. As a result, Germany occupied northern France and the Atlantic coastline, while southern France remained under the control of a Nazi-controlled French government with capital in Vichy. On June 21, Italy invaded southern France.

After chaotic negotiations between Germany and Italy, Mussolini requested a demilitarized zone along the French border, and on June 24, Italy agreed to an armistice with the Vichy regime to that effect. With France neutralized, Germany began an air campaign the Battle of Britain to prepare to invade Britain. The campaign failed and the invasion plans were cancelled. After the the Axis powers invaded Yugoslavia, the country was divided into a number of spheres of interest. German and Italian troops largely administered Croatia, which in theory was an independent state.

Retrieved 25 June Der missbrauchte Antifaschismus. Freiburg: Verlag Herder. Europe at War — No Simple Victory. Pan Macmillan. Retrieved 21 June Berghahn Books. Antifaschisten in "antifaschistischer" Gewalt: mittel- und ostdeutsche Schicksale in den Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Demokratie und Diktatur bis Aufruf des Zentralkomitees an die deutsche Arbeiterklasse! Rote Fahne.

Retrieved 10 August Nomos Verlag. Retrieved 5 June Categories : establishments in Germany Anti-fascism in Germany Anti-fascist organizations Organizations established in Namespaces Article Talk. They will also have the opportunity to provide feedback on primary-source teaching tools currently under development at the Museum. An array of staff scholars with expertise in various Holocaust-related topics will be available to consult with participants about their syllabi. Ultimately, participants will learn how to respectfully, rigorously, and accurately represent these victims in Holocaust-related courses across disciplines.

In addition to lecture and discussion, the Seminar will devote time to specific pedagogical strategies used by the leaders and participants to examine this complicated and diverse victim group in the classroom. Conversant in historical and ethnographic methods, primary-source research, and gendered analysis, the three instructors will present an interdisciplinary, intersectional, and entangled approach to this multifaceted topic.

Professor Brooks has written widely in the field of Romani studies, as well as Latin American and South Asian studies. She is currently at work on a book focusing on political economy, cultural production, and Romani contentions and claims to urban space. She is also a member of the U. She previously designed and managed Mandel Center outreach programs geared toward ethnic studies faculty and has lectured widely on U. Prior to joining the Museum, Dr.


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  • Hegburg taught in the Department of Anthropology at Rutgers University. An anthropologist by training, she has conducted extensive fieldwork in Romani communities in the Czech Republic and is currently working on a book project about Romani claims for the recognition of their persecution in the Holocaust.

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